Great Hammerhead, Sphyrna mokarran (Rüppell 1837)


Other Names: Hoe-head Shark

A Great Hammerhead, Sphyrna mokarran, at the Georgia Aquarium. Source: Gary J. Wood / Wikimedia Commons. License: CC BY Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike

Summary:

The largest of the hammerhead species, reaching a length of six metres. 

Identifying features:
Front margin of head almost straight - with an indentation in the middle;
First dorsal fin very tall and curved with a pointed tip; second dorsal fin, equal to or larger than anal fin;
Pelvic fins with concave hind margins;
Bronze or greyish-brown above, pale below;
Teeth heavily serrated.

Video of a female Great Hammerhead in the Bahamas.

Video of a Great Hammerhead from the ARKive group.


Cite this page as:
Bray, D.J. 2017, Sphyrna mokarran in Fishes of Australia, accessed 14 Nov 2018, http://fishesofaustralia.net.au/home/species/1969

Great Hammerhead, Sphyrna mokarran (Rüppell 1837)

More Info


Distribution

Known in Australian waters from Mandurah, Western Australia, around the tropical north to about Sydney, New South Wales.

Elsewhere, the species is circumglobal in tropical and warm temperate seas. 

Conservation

  • EPBC Act 1999 : Not listed
  • IUCN Red List : Endangered
  • CITES Listed : Appendix II
  • Author

    Bray, D.J. 2017

    Great Hammerhead, Sphyrna mokarran (Rüppell 1837)

    References


    Allen, G.R. 1997. Marine Fishes of Tropical Australia and South-east Asia. Perth : Western Australian Museum 292 pp. 106 pls.

    Allen, G.R. & Swainston, R. 1988. The Marine Fishes of North-Western Australia. A field guide for anglers and divers. Perth, WA : Western Australian Museum vi 201 pp., 70 pls.

    Chin A, Simpfendorfer CA, White WT, Johnson GJ, McAuley RB, Heupel MR. 2017. Crossing lines: a multidisciplinary framework for assessing connectivity of hammerhead sharks across jurisdictional boundaries. Scientific Reports 7: 46061. doi:10.1038/srep46061 open access

    Compagno, L.J.V. 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Sharks of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fisheries Synopsis No. 125. Rome : FAO Vol. 4(2) 251-655 pp.

    Compagno, L.J.V. 1998. Family Sphyrnidae. pp. 1361-1366 in Carpenter, K.E. & Niem, V.H. (eds). The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fisheries Purposes. Rome : FAO Vol. 2 687-1396 pp.

    Compagno, L.J.V., Dando, M. & Fowler, S. 2005. A Field Guide to the Sharks of the World. London : Collins 368 pp.

    Denham, J., Stevens, J., Simpfendorfer, C.A., Heupel, M.R., Cliff, G., Morgan, A., Graham, R., Ducrocq, M., Dulvy, N.D, Seisay, M., Asber, M., Valenti, S.V., Litvinov, F., Martins, P., Lemine Ould Sidi, M. & Tous, P. and Bucal, D. 2007. Sphyrna mokarran. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 19 November 2012.

    Fraser-Brunner, A. 1950. A synopsis of the hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna), with description of a new species. Records of the Australian Museum 22(3): 213-219 figs 1-3

    Gallagher A.J., Shiffman, D.S. & Giery, S.T. 2014. Evolved for Extinction: The Cost and Conservation Implications of Specialization in Hammerhead Sharks. BioScience, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biosci/biu071

    Gilbert, C.R. 1967. A revision of the hammerhead sharks (family Sphyrnidae). Proceedings of the United States National Museum 119(3539): 1-88 pls 1-10

    Gloerfelt-Tarp, T. & Kailola, P.J. 1984. Trawled fishes of southern Indonesia and northwestern Australia. Australian Development Assistance Bureau, Canberra, Australia.

    Harry, A.V., Macbeth,W.G., Gutteridge, A.N. & Simpfendorfer, C.A. 2011. The life histories of endangered hammerhead sharks (Carcharhiniformes, Sphyrnidae) from the east coast of Australia. Journal of Fish Biology 78: 2026–2051.

    Johnson, J.W. 2010. Fishes of the Moreton Bay Marine Park and adjacent continental shelf waters, Queensland, Australia. pp. 299-353 in Davie, P.J.F. & Phillips, J.A. Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Marine Biological Workshop, The Marine Fauna and Flora of Moreton Bay. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 54(3)

    Last, P.R. & Stevens, J.D. 1994. Sharks and Rays of Australia. Canberra : CSIRO Australia 513 pp. 84 pls.

    Last, P.R. & Stevens, J.D. 2009. Sharks and Rays of Australia. Collingwood : CSIRO Publishing Australia 2, 550 pp.

    Macbeth, W.G., Vandenberg, M. & Graham, K.J. 2008. Identifying Sharks and Rays; a Guide for Commercial Fishers. Sydney : New South Wales Department of Primary Industry 71 pp.

    Payne, N.L.,  Iosilevskii, G.,  Barnett, A.,  Fischer, C.,  Graham, R.T.,  Gleiss, A.C. &  Watanabe, Y.Y.  2016. Great hammerhead sharks swim on their side to reduce transport costs. Nature Communiccations 7: 12289. doi:10.1038/ncomms12289 

    Pepperell, J. 2010. Fishes of the Open Ocean a Natural History & Illustrated Guide. Sydney : University of New South Wales Press Ltd 266 pp.

    Rüppell, W.P.E. 1837. Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Fische des Rothen Meeres. Frankfurt Vol. 3, pp. 53–80, pls 15–21.

    Stead, D.G. 1963. Sharks and Rays of Australian Seas. Sydney : Angus & Robertson 211 pp. 63 figs.

    Stevens, J.D. & Lyle, J.M. 1989. Biology of three hammerhead sharks (Eusphyra blochii, Sphyrna mokarran and S. lewini) form Northern Australia. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 40: 129–146.

    Strong, W.R., Snelson, F.F. & Gruber, S.H. 1990. Hammerhead shark predation on stingrays: an observation of prey handling by Sphyrna mokarran. Copeia 1990(3): 836-840.

    Quick Facts


    CAAB Code:37019002

    Conservation:IUCN Endangered; CITES Listed

    Danger:Potentially dangerous

    Depth:0-80 m

    Fishing:Fished for their fins

    Max Size:600 cm TL

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