Greenback Flounder, Rhombosolea tapirina Günther 1862


Other Names: Melbourne Flounder, Southern Flounder

A Greenback Flounder, Rhombosolea tapirina, at Battery Point, Derwent River, Hobart, Tasmania. Source: Rick Stuart-Smith / Reef Life Survey. License: CC BY Attribution

Summary:

A distinctly rhomboidal-shaped flatfish with a long snout tip, and no pelvic fins on the underside. The Greenback flounder varies in colour from greenish and greyish, to brownish, with or without darker spots and blotches.


Cite this page as:
Dianne J. Bray, Rhombosolea tapirina in Fishes of Australia, accessed 16 Nov 2018, http://fishesofaustralia.net.au/home/species/994

Greenback Flounder, Rhombosolea tapirina Günther 1862

More Info


Distribution

Known in Australia from southern New South Wales and Tasmania, to Western Australia. Elsewhere in New Zealand, including the Auckland and Campbell Islands.

Adults inhabit sandy, silty and muddy bottoms in sheltered bays, estuaries, and
inshore coastal waters in depths to 100 metres. They also occur in the deeper channels of estuaries. Females are usually more common in shallower water than males.

Juveniles settle out onto shallow sand and mudflats, blending into the substrate.
They are able to tolerate a range of salinites and can be found in the upper reaches of estuaries.

Feeding

Adults are nocturnal and feed on benthic invertebrates such as crustaceans and polychaete worms. Juveniles consume small crustaceans such as amphipods and copepods, and polychaete worms.

Biology

Rhombosolea tapirina is a serial spawning  over a prolonged spawning season from late winter to spring. Females move into the deeper parts of estuaries and to offshore waters to spawn.

Fisheries

Greenback Flounder are fished commercially and recreationally in south-eastern Australia, with small catches also taken in Queensland and Western Australia. They are taken with bottom-set gill nets and seine nets, and are also caught incidentally in Danish seines and otter trawls. The species is also commercially important in New Zealand.

Author

Dianne J. Bray

Greenback Flounder, Rhombosolea tapirina Günther 1862

References


Barnett, C.W. & Pankhurst, N.W. (1999). Reproductive biology and endocrinology of greenback flounder Rhombosolea tapirina (Günther 1862). Marine and Freshwater Research 50: 35-42.

Burchmore, J.J. (1982). The comparative ecology of sympatric flatfish species
(Pleuronectiformes) in Botany Bay, New South Wales. University of Sydney.

Chen, W.-M., Purser, J. & Blyth, P. (1999). Diel feeding rhythms of greenback flounder  Rhombosolea tapirina (Günther 1862): the role of light-dark cycles and food deprivation. Aquaculture Research 30: 529-537.

Cox, E.S. & Pankhurst, P.M. (2000). Feeding behaviour of greenback flounder larvae, Rhombosolea tapirina (Günther) with differing exposure histories to live prey. Aquaculture Research 183: 285-297.

Crawford, C.M. (1984). An ecological study of Tasmanian flounder. Ph.D. thesis. University of Tasmania.

Crawford, C.M. (1984). Preliminary results of experiments on the rearing of Tasmanian flounders, Rhombosolea tapirina and Ammotretis rostratus. Aquaculture 42: 75-81.

Crawford, C.M. (1986). Development of eggs and larvae of the flounders Rhombosolea tapirina and Ammotretis rostratus (Pisces: Pleuronectidae). Journal of Fish Biology 29: 325-334.

Evseenko, S.A. 1996. Ontogeny and relationships of the flatfishes of the Southern Ocean (Achiropsettidae, Pleuronectoidei). Journal of Ichthyology 36(9): 687-712.

Edgar, G.J. (2000). Australian Marine Life: The Plants and Animals of Temperate Marine Waters. Sydney, Reed New Holland.

Edgar, G.J., Last, P.R. & Wells, M.W. (1982). Coastal Fishes of Tasmania and Bass Strait. Hobart, Cat and Fiddle Press.

Edgar, G J. & Shaw, C. (1995). The production and trophic ecology of shallow-water fish assemblages in southern Australia I. Species richness, size-structure and production of fishes in Western Port, Victoria. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 194: 53-81.

Ferguson, G. (2006). Fisheries biology of the greenback flounder Rhombosolea tapirina (Günther 1862) (Teleostei: Pleuronectidae) in South Australia. Report for PIRSA Fisheries. South Australian Research and Development Institute (Aquatic Sciences), Adelaide, RD06/0008-1. 18 pp.

Gomon, M.F. 1994. Family Pleuronectidae. pp. 851-859, figs 753-760 in Gomon, M.F., Glover, C.J.M. & Kuiter, R.H. (eds). The Fishes of Australia's South Coast. Adelaide : State Printer 992 pp. 810 figs.

Gomon, M.F. 2008. Family Rhombosoleidae. pp. 810-816 in Gomon. M.F., Bray, D.J. & Kuiter, R.H (eds). Fishes of Australia's Southern Coast. Sydney : Reed New Holland 928 pp.

Günther, A. 1862. Catalogue of the Fishes in the British Museum. Catalogue of the Acanthopterygii Pharyngognathi and Anacanthini in the collection of the British Museum. London : British Museum Vol. 4 534 pp.

Hoese, D. F. & Bray, D.J. 2006. Pleuronectidae. pp. 1831-1837 in Beesley, P.L. & Wells, A. (eds). Zoological Catalogue of Australia. Volume 35 Australia : ABRS & CSIRO Publishing Parts 1-3, 2178 pp.

Hutchins, J.B. 2001. Checklist of the fishes of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum, Supplement 63: 9-50

Jenkins, G.P. (1986). Composition, seasonality and distribution of ichthyoplankton in Port Phillip Bay, Victoria. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 37: 507-520.

Jenkins, G.P. (1987). Age and growth of co-occurring larvae of two flounder species, Rhombosolea tapirina and Ammotretis rostratus. Marine Biology 95: 157-166.

Jenkins, G.P. (1987). Comparative diets, prey selection, and predatory impact of cooccurring larvae of two flounder species. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 110: 147-170.

Jenkins, G.P., May, H.M.A., Wheatley, M.J. & Holloway, M.G. (1997). Comparison of fish assemblages associated with seagrass and adjacent unvegetated habitats of Port Phillip Bay and Corner Inlet, Victoria, Australia, with emphasis on commercial species. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 44: 569-588.

Jenkins, G.P., Shaw, M. & Stewart, B.D. (1993). Spatial variation in food-limited growth of juvenile Greenback Flounder, Rhombosolea tapirina: Evidence from otolith daily increments and otolith scaling. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 50: 2558-2567.

Jenkins, G.P. & Wheatley, M.J. (1998). The influence of habitat structure on nearshore fish assemblages in a southern Australian embayment: comparison of shallow seagrass, reef-algal and unvegetated sand habitats, with emphasis on their importance to recruitment. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 221: 147-172.

Jordan, A.R., Mills, D.M., Ewing, G. & Lyle, J.M. (1998). Assessment of inshore habitats around Tasmania for life-history stages of commercial finfish species. Tasmanian Aquaculture and Fisheries Institute, University of Tasmania.

Kailola, P.J., Williams, M.J., Stewart, P.C., Reichelt, R.E., McNee, A. & Greive, C. (1993). Australian Fisheries Resources. Canberra, Australia. Brisbane, Bureau of Resource Sciences, Fisheries Research and Development Corporation. Australian Fisheries Resources: 318-320.

Kuiter, R.H. 1993. Coastal Fishes of South-eastern Australia. Bathurst : Crawford House Press 437 pp.

Kuiter, R.H. 1996. Guide to Sea Fishes of Australia. A comprehensive reference for divers and fishermen. Sydney, NSW, Australia : New Holland Publishers xvii, 434 pp.

Kurth, D. (1957). An investigation of the greenback flounder, Rhombosolea tapirina Günther. PhD thesis. University of Tasmania.

Last, P.R., Scott, E.O.G. & Talbot, F.H. (1983). Fishes of Tasmania. Hobart, Tasmanian Fisheries Development Authority

May, H.M.A. & Jenkins, G.P. (1992). Patterns of settlement and growth of juvenile flounder, Rhombosolea tapirina, determined from otolith microstructure. Marine Ecology Progress Series 79: 203-214.

Shaw, M. & Jenkins, G.P. (1992). Spatial variation in feeding, prey distribution and food limitation of juvenile flounder Rhombosolea tapirina Günther. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 165: 1-21.

Stewart, B.D. & Jenkins, G.P. (1991). Daily growth increments in the otoliths of juvenile greenback flounder, Rhombosolea tapirina Günther, 1862. Journal of Fish Biology 39: 605-608.

van den Enden, T., White, R.W.G. & Elliott, N.G. (2000). Genetic variation in the greenback flounder Rhombosolea tapirina Günther (Teleostei, Pleuronectidae) and the implications for aquaculture. Marine and Freshwater Research 51: 21-33.

  

Quick Facts


CAAB Code:37461003

Depth:1–100 m

Fishing:Commercial & recreational fish

Habitat:Sandy & silty bottoms

Max Size:45 cm

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