Sluggish bottom-dwelling rays with large pectoral electric organs comprised of columns of modified muscle cells called electrocytes. The powerful electric shock produced by torpedo rays is used to stun and capture prey, as well as a defence mechanism. Maximum size for the family is 1.8 m.
Author: Dianne J. Bray
Cite this page as:
Dianne J. Bray, Tetronarce in Fishes of Australia, accessed 19 May 2022, https://fishesofaustralia.net.au/Home/genus/1519
Compagno, L.J.V. & Last, P.R. 1999. Families Narkidae, Hypnidae, Torpedinidae. pp. 1443-1451 in Carpenter, K.E. & Niem, V.H. (eds). The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fisheries Purposes. Rome : FAO Vol. 3 pp. 1397-2068.
Helfman, G.S., Collette, B.B. & D.E. Facey. 1997. The Diversity of Fishes.Blackwell Science. 528 pp.
Last, P.R. & Stevens, J.D. 2009. Sharks and Rays of Australia. Collingwood : CSIRO Publishing Australia 2, 550 pp.