Genus Solegnathus


A Western Pacific genus with at least 9 species; 6 species in Australian waters. Body elongate, trunk moderately shallow; head at slight angle to line of body at most; snout moderately long; opercle with radiating rows at small spines; STR and STAR discontinuous near rear of dorsal‑fin base; ITR and ITAR discontinuous; LTR confluent with LTAR and STAR; eggs brooded on open undersurface of tail just behind anal fin; tail prehensile; dorsal fin much closer to tip of tail than snout, with moderately elongate base; anal fin very small, below front of dorsal fin; caudal fin absent; pectoral fins present.

Author: Martin F. Gomon & Dianne J. Bray

Cite this page as:
Martin F. Gomon & Dianne J. Bray, Solegnathus in Fishes of Australia, accessed 13 Jul 2024,


Allen, G.R. 1997. Marine Fishes of Tropical Australia and South-east Asia. Perth : Western Australian Museum 292 pp. 106 pls.

Allen, G.R. & Swainston, R. 1988. The Marine Fishes of North-Western Australia. A field guide for anglers and divers. Perth, WA : Western Australian Museum vi 201 pp., 70 pls.

Bleeker, P. 1860. Twaalfde bijdrage tot de kennis der vischfauna van Amboina. Acta Societatis Scientiarum Indo-Neerlandicae 8: 1-4

Bowles, D.R.J. 2001. The nature of the bycatch fishery of Solegnathus spp. (Pipehorses) in NSW demersal trawl fisheries. Report to the NSW Fisheries Scientific Committee.

Dawson, C.E. 1982. Synopsis of the Indo-Pacific genus Solegnathus (Pisces : Syngnathidae). Japanese Journal of Ichthyology 29(2): 139-161 figs 1-8

Dawson, C.E. 1985. Indo-Pacific Pipefishes (Red Sea to the Americas). Ocean Springs (Mississippi) : Gulf Coast Research Laboratory 230 pp. 293 figs pl. 1.

Dawson, C.E. 1994. Family Syngnathidae. pp. 440-475 figs 391-426 in Gomon, M.F., Glover, C.J.M. & Kuiter, R.H (eds). The Fishes of Australia's South Coast. Adelaide : State Printer 992 pp. 810 figs.

Duncker, G. 1915. Revision der Syngnathidae. Mitteilungen aus dem Naturhistorischen Museum in Hamburg 32: 9-120 1 pl.

Fowler, H.W. 1908. A collection of fishes from Victoria, Australia. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 59(3): 419-444 figs 1-10 [dated 1907]

Francis, M. 1993. Checklist of the coastal fishes of Lord Howe, Norfolk, and Kermadec Islands, southwest Pacific Ocean. Pacific Science 47(2): 136-170 figs 1-2

Grant, E.M. 1975. Guide to Fishes. Brisbane : Queensland Government, Co-ordinator General’s Department 640 pp.

Gray, J.E. 1830. Illustrations of Indian Zoology of new and hitherto unfigured Indian Animals from the Collection of General Hardwicke. London Vol. 1 [no page numbers in original]. [not seen]

Günther, A. 1870. Catalogue of the Fishes in the British Museum. Catalogue of the Physostomi, containing the families Gymnotidae, Symbranchidae, Muraenidae, Pegasidae, and of the Lophobranchii, Plectognathi, Dipnoi, [thru] Leptocardii, in the British Museum. London : British Museum Vol. 8 549 pp.

Günther, A. 1880. Report on the shore fishes procured during the voyage of H.M.S Challenger, in the years 1872–1876. Report on the Scientific Results of the Voyage of the H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-76 (Zoology) 1(6): 1-82 pls 1-32

Hobday, D., Reilly, D. & Flint, R. 2008. Monitoring of by‐catch and interactions with threatened, endangered and protected species in the Victorian southern rock lobster and giant crab fisheries. 39: 1-29

Hutchins, J.B. 2001. Checklist of the fishes of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum, Supplement 63: 9-50

IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2011.1.

Johnson, J.W. 1999. Annotated checklist of the fishes of Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 43(2): 709-762

Jordan, D.S. 1920. The genera of fishes. Part 4. Stanford University Publications, University Series 43: 411-576

Kuiter, R.H. 1993. Coastal Fishes of South-eastern Australia. Bathurst : Crawford House Press 437 pp.

Kuiter, R.H. 2000. Seahorses, Pipefishes and Their Relatives. Chorleywood, UK : TMC Publishing 240 pp.

Kuiter, R.H. 2008. Syngnathidae. pp. 448-479 in Gomon. M.F., Bray, D.J. & Kuiter, R.H (eds). Fishes of Australia's Southern Coast. Sydney : Reed New Holland 928 pp.

Kuiter, R.H. 2009. Seahorses and their relatives. Seaford, Australia : Aquatic Photographics pp. 331.

Last, P.R., Scott, E.O.G. & Talbot, F.H. 1983. Fishes of Tasmania. Hobart : Tasmanian Fisheries Development Authority 563 pp. figs.

Martin-Smith, K.M. & Vincent, A.C.J. 2006. Exploitation and trade of Australian seahorses, pipehorses, sea dragons and pipefishes (Family Syngnathidae). Oryx 40: 141-151

Martin-Smith, K.M., Lam, T.F-N. & Lee, S.K-H. 2003. Trade in Pipehorses Solegnathus spp. for Traditional Medicine in Hong Kong. Traffic Bulletin 19: 139-148

May, J.L. & Maxwell, J.G.H. 1986. Field Guide to Trawl Fish from Temperate Waters of Australia. Hobart : CSIRO Division of Marine Research 492 pp.

McCulloch, A.R. 1911. Report on the fishes obtained by the F.I.S. Endeavour on the coasts of New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia and Tasmania. Part 1. Zoological (Biological) Results. Endeavour 1(1): 1-87 figs 1-20 pls 1-16

Munro, I.S.R. 1961. Handbook of Australian fishes. Nos 1–42. Australian Fisheries Newsletter 15–17, 19, 20: 1-172 [published as separates 1956–1961]

Paulus, T. 1999. Family Syngnathidae. pp. 2264-2276 in Carpenter, K.E. & Niem, T.H. (eds). The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fisheries Purposes. Rome : FAO Vol. 4 2069-2790 pp.

Paxton, J.R., Gates, J.E., Hoese, D.F. & Bray, D.J. 2006. Syngnathidae. pp. 810-846 in Beesley, P.L. & Wells, A. (eds). Zoological Catalogue of Australia. Volume 35 Australia : ABRS & CSIRO Publishing Parts 1-3 2178 pp.

Pognoski, J.J., Pollard, D.A. & Paxton, J.R. 2002. Conservation Overview and Action Plan for Australian Threatened and Potentially Threatened Marine and Estuarine Fishes. Canberra : Environment Australia 375 pp.

Scott, E.O.G. 1963. Observations on some Tasmanian fishes: Part 11. Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania. 97: 1-31

Scott, E.O.G. 1979. Observations on some Tasmanian fishes: Part 24. Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania. 113(99-148)

Swainson, W. 1839. The Natural History of Fishes, Amphibians, and Reptiles, or Monocardian Animals. London : Longman, Orme, Brown, Green & Longmans, and John Taylor Vol. 2 452 pp. 135 figs.

Whitley, G.P. 1927. Studies in Ichthyology No. 1. Records of the Australian Museum 15(5): 289-304 fig. 1 pls 24-25

Whitley, G.P. 1962. Marine Fishes. Natural History of Sydney, Australian Museum. 44-52 pp.

Whitley, G.P. 1966. Marine Fishes of Australia. Brisbane : Jacaranda Press Vol. 1 pp. 1-142.