Zebra Shark, Stegostoma tigrinum (Forster 1781)


Other Names: Leopard Shark

A Zebra Shark, Stegostoma fasciatum, in the Aquarium of the Pacific. Source: Ross D. Robertson / Shorefishes of the neotropics. License: CC by Attribution-Noncommercial

Summary:

Adults are yellowish to tan or brown with dark leopard-like spots. Juveniles are brownish to blackish with white bands and large blotches encircling the body and tail. As the shark grows, the pattern gradually breaks up into dark spots on a paler background.

The Zebra Sharks (Leopard Sharks) of 9-Mile Reef, off the Tweed Coast, northern New South Wales

Video of Zebra Sharks at Byron Bay, New South Wales

A Zebra Shark at Sangalaki, Borneo

Video of courting Zebra Sharks (Leopard Sharks) in the Townsville Reef HQ Aquarium


Cite this page as:
Bray, D.J. 2024, Stegostoma tigrinum in Fishes of Australia, accessed 01 Mar 2024, https://fishesofaustralia.net.au/home/species/1978

Zebra Shark, Stegostoma tigrinum (Forster 1781)

More Info


Distribution

Port Gregory, Western Australia, around the tropical north to Montague Island, southern New South Wales. Also found around a number of Coral Sea islands. Elsewhere the species occurs in the tropical Indo-west Pacific.

Inhabits shallow inshore and offshore waters, often on and around coral and rocky reefs and on sandy plateaus near coral, at depths to at least 62 m. Individuals often rest on the sandy bottom, and both juveniles and adults may be seen swimming near the surface. During summer months, reproductively mature adults aggregate in large numbers in coastal waters of southern Queensland and northern New South Wales.

Feeding

Feed at night mostly on gastropod and bivalve molluscs, and to a lesser extent on crabs, shrimps and small fishes. 

Biology

Females lay large (17 cm long) tough egg capsules that become anchored to the bottom by tufts of hair-like filaments or fibres.

Banded neonate Zebra Sharks have been seen swimming close to the surface,  strongly resembling banded sea snakes in colour and body form as well as the undulatory swimming movements.

Fisheries

The species is heavily fished in coastal fisheries throughout its range except in Australia.

Remarks

This species has previously been known as Stegostoma fasciatum. Dahl et al. (2019) reviewed the nomenclature of this species and suggested that the original name Stegostoma tigrinum Forster, 1781, should be used as the senior synonym for the species.

Etymology

The specific name is from the Latin tigrinum (= of or relating to tigers), in reference to the pattern of black and white bands in juveniles.

Species Citation

Squalus tigrinum Forster 1781,Zoologia Indica Selecta Tabulis: 24, Pl. 13(fig. 2) . Type locality: Indian Ocean.

Author

Bray, D.J. 2024

Resources

Atlas of Living Australia

Zebra Shark, Stegostoma tigrinum (Forster 1781)

References


Allen, G.R. 1997. Marine Fishes of Tropical Australia and South-east Asia. Perth : Western Australian Museum 292 pp. 106 pls. (as Stegostoma fasciatum)

Allen, G.R. & Erdmann, M.V. 2012. Reef fishes of the East Indies. Perth : Tropical Reef Research 3 vols, 1260 pp. (as Stegostoma fasciatum)

Brunnschweiler, J.M. & Pratt, H.L. (Jr.) 2008. Putative Male – Male Agonistic Behaviour in Free-Living Zebra Sharks, Stegostoma fasciatum. The Open Fish Science Journal 1 (1): 23–27. (as Stegostoma fasciatum)

Compagno, L.J.V. 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Sharks of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes. FAO Fisheries Synopsis No. 125. Rome : FAO Vol. 4(1) pp. 1-249. (as Stegostoma fasciatum)

Compagno, L.J.V. 1998. Families Ginglymostomatidae, Stegostomatidae, Rhincodontidae. pp. 1260-1263 in Carpenter, K.E. & Niem, V.H. (eds). The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fisheries Purposes. Rome : FAO Vol. 2 687-1396 pp. (as Stegostoma fasciatum)

Compagno, L.J.V. 2001. Sharks of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Bullhead, mackerel and carpet sharks (Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes and Orectolobiformes). Rome : FAO, FAO Species Catalogue for Fisheries Purposes No. 1 Vol. 2 269 pp. (as Stegostoma fasciatum)

Compagno, L.J.V., Dando, M. & Fowler, S. 2005. A Field Guide to the Sharks of the World. London : Collins 368 pp. (as Stegostoma fasciatum)

Dahl, R.B., Sigsgaard, E.E., Mwangi, G., Thomsen, P.F., et al. 2019. The sandy zebra shark: a new color morph of the zebra shark Stegostoma tigrinum, with a redescription of the species and a revision of its nomenclature. Copeia 107(3): 524-541 https://doi.org/10.1643/CG-18-115

Dudgeon, C.L., Broderick, D. & Ovenden, J.R. 2009. IUCN classification zones concord with, but underestimate, the population genetic structure of the zebra shark Stegostoma fasciatum in the Indo-West Pacific. Molecular Ecology 18(2): 248–261. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294X.2008.04025.x (as Stegostoma fasciatum

Dudgeon, C.L., Coulton, L., Bone, R.,  Ovenden, J.R. & Thomas, S. 2017. Switch from sexual to parthenogenetic reproduction in a zebra shark. Scientific Reports 7: 40537 https://doi.org/10.1038/srep40537  (as Stegostoma fasciatum)

Dudgeon C.L., Lanyon, J.M. & Semmens, J.M. 2013. Seasonality and site-fidelity of the zebra shark Stegostoma fasciatum in southeast Queensland, Australia. Animal Behaviour 85: 471-481. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2012.12.013

Dudgeon, C.L., Noad, M.J. & Lanyon, J.M. 2008. Abundance and demography of a seasonal aggregation of zebra sharks Stegostoma fasciatum. Marine Ecology Progress Series 368: 269–281. https://doi.org/10.3354/meps07581 (as Stegostoma fasciatum)

Dudgeon, C.L. & Ovenden, J.R. 2015. The relationship between abundance and genetic effective population size in elasmobranchs: an example from the globally threatened zebra shark Stegostoma fasciatum within its protected range. Conservation Genetics 16: 1443-1454. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10592-015-0752-y

Dudgeon, C.L., Simpfendorfer, C. & Pillans, R.D. 2019. Stegostoma fasciatum (amended version of 2016 assessment). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019: e.T41878A161303882. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-3.RLTS.T41878A161303882.en. Downloaded on 21 January 2020.

Dudgeon, C.L. & White, W.T. 2012. First record of potential batesian mimicry in an elasmobranch: juvenile Zebra Shark mimic banded sea snake? Marine and Freshwater Research 63(6): 545–551. https://doi.org/10.1071/MF11211

Forster, J.R. 1781. Indische Zoologie, oder systematische Beschreibungen seltener und unbekaunter Thieve aus Indien, &c. Von Juhn Reinhold Forster. Halle : Johann Jacob Gebauer 42 pp.

Goto, T. 2001. Comparative Anatomy, Phylogeny and Cladistic Classification of the Order Orectolobiformes (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii). Memoirs of the Graduate School of Fisheries Science, Hokkaido University 48 (1): 1–101. (as Stegostoma varium)

Grant, E.M. 2002. Guide to Fishes. Redcliffe : EM Grant Pty Ltd 880 pp. (as Stegostoma fasciatum)

Harry, A.V., Tobin, A.J., Simpfendorfer, C.A., Welch, D.J., Mapleston, A., White, J., Williams, A.J. & Stapley, J. 2011. Evaluating catch and mitigating risk in a multispecies, tropical, inshore shark fishery within the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area. Marine and Freshwater Research 62: 710-721. https://doi.org/10.1071/MF10155

Hermann, J. 1783. Tabula affinitatum Animalium. Argensorati. (Treuttel) 370 pp. (described as Stegostoma fasciatum; type locality probably Indonesia)

Hutchins, J.B. & Swainston, R. 1986. Sea Fishes of Southern Australia. Complete field guide for anglers and divers. Perth : Swainston Publishing 180 pp. (as Stegostoma fasciatum)

Kottelat, M. 2013. The fishes of the inland waters of southeast Asia: a catalogue and core bibliography of the fishes known to occur in freshwaters, mangroves and estuaries. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Supplement 27: 1-663

Last, P.R. & Stevens, J.D. 1994. Sharks and Rays of Australia. Canberra : CSIRO Australia 513 pp. 84 pls. (as Stegostoma fasciatum)

Last, P.R. & Stevens, J.D. 2009. Sharks and Rays of Australia. Collingwood : CSIRO Publishing Australia 2, 550 pp. (as Stegostoma fasciatum)

Randall, J.E., Allen, G.R. & Steene, R. 1990. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. Bathurst : Crawford House Press 507 pp. figs. (as Stegostoma fasciatum)

Seba, A. 1759. Locupletissimi rerum naturalium thesauri accurata descriptio et iconibus artificiosissimis expressio per universam physices historiam. Amsterdam. Vol. 3. 212 pp. 116 pls (described as Squalus varium, type locality unknown)

Stead, D.G. 1963. Sharks and Rays of Australian Seas. Sydney : Angus & Robertson 211 pp. 63 figs. (as Stegastoma tigrinum)

Whitley, G.P. 1939. Taxonomic notes on sharks and rays. The Australian Zoologist 9(3): 227-262 figs 1-18 pls 20-22  (as Stegostoma tigrinum naucrum) See ref at BHL

Whitley, G.P. 1940. The Fishes of Australia. Part 1. The sharks, rays, devil-fish, and other primitive fishes of Australia and New Zealand. Sydney : Roy. Zool. Soc. N.S.W. 280 pp. 303 figs. (described as Stegostoma tigrinum naucrum; type locality Hawkesbury River, New South Wales, Australia) See ref at BHL

Quick Facts


CAAB Code:37013006

Conservation:IUCN Endangered

Danger:May bite if provoked

Depth:0-62 m

Habitat:Reef associated, sandy areas

Max Size:354 cm TL

Species Maps

CAAB distribution map