Pygmy Devilray, Mobula kuhlii (Valenciennes 1841)

Other Names: Diamond Fish, Eregoodoo, Lesser Devilray, Manta Ray, Ox Ray, Oxray, Ox-ray, Pigmy Devil Ray, Pigmy Devilray, Shortfin Devil Ray, Smaller Devil Ray, Smaller Devilray

Pygmy Devilrays, Mobula kuhlii, in the Maldives, June 2016. Source: Robin Bad / License: CC By Attribution-NonCommercial


A small uniformly dark grey to dark greyish-brown devilray with a white underside, and dark margins on the pectoral fins. In Australia, this species was previously referred to as Mobula eregoodootenkee, a junior synonym (White et al. 2017).

Cite this page as:
Bray, D.J. 2017, Mobula kuhlii in Fishes of Australia, accessed 04 Apr 2020,

Pygmy Devilray, Mobula kuhlii (Valenciennes 1841)

More Info


Known from the northern half of Australia, from in Australian waters from off Port Hedland, Western Australia, northwards and throughout the Northern Territory, to Moreton Bay, Queensland.

Elsewhere, the species is widespread in coastal waters of the tropical Indo-West Pacific - from the Red Sea and East Africa to Papua New Guinea, Australia, the Philippines and Vietnam.

The Pygmy Devilray is pelagic in coastal waters around continents, and has not been recorded from oceanic islands.


Disc broad, short; tail shorter than disc width with no stinging spine; head relatively long, mouth on underside, cephalic lobes prominent with a deeply concave rostral margin.


Devilrays typically give birth to a single pup per litter with a gestation period of 1–3 years.


This species is taken in both target and bycatch fisheries in many parts of its range. Mobulid rays are targeted for their branchial filter plates for use in traditional Chinese medicines.


In Australia, the Pygmy Devilray has been misidentified as Mobula diabolus which is a junior synonym of M. mobular (White et al. 2017).

Species Citation

Cephaloptera eregoodootenkee Bleeker, 1859 Acta Soc. Scient. Indo-Neerland. 6: 214. Type locality:  Gulf of Thailand off Cambodia, about 1 mile east of Goh Choaw (Neotype).


Bray, D.J. 2017


Australian Faunal Directory

Pygmy Devilray, Mobula kuhlii (Valenciennes 1841)


Bizzarro, J., Smith, W., White, W.T. & Valenti, S.V. 2009. Mobula kuhlii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2009: e.T161439A5424139. Downloaded on 03 July 2017.

Compagno, L.J.V. & Last, P.R. 1999. Families Gymnuridae, Myliobatidae, Rhinopteridae, Mobulidae. pp. 1505-1529 in Carpenter, K.E. & Niem, V.H. (eds). The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fisheries Purposes. Rome : FAO Vol. 3 1397-2068 pp.

Daley, R.K., Stevens, J.D., Last, P.R. & Yearsley, G.K. 2002. Field Guide to Australian Sharks & Rays. Hobart : CSIRO Marine Research 84 pp. (as Mobula eregoodootenkee)

Grant, E.M. 1975. Guide to Fishes. Brisbane : Queensland Government, Co-ordinator General’s Department 640 pp.(as Mobula eregoodootenkee)

Grant, E.M. 2002. Guide to Fishes. Redcliffe : EM Grant Pty Ltd 880 pp.(as Mobula eregoodootenkee)

Johnson, J.W. 2010. Fishes of the Moreton Bay Marine Park and adjacent continental shelf waters, Queensland, Australia. pp. 299-353 in Davie, P.J.F. & Phillips, J.A. Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Marine Biological Workshop, The Marine Fauna and Flora of Moreton Bay. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 54(3): 307.(as Mobula eregoodootenkee)

Last, P.R. & Stevens, J.D. 1994. Sharks and Rays of Australia. Canberra : CSIRO Australia 513 pp. 84 pls.(as Mobula eregoodootenkee)

Last, P.R. & Stevens, J.D. 2009. Sharks and Rays of Australia. Collingwood : CSIRO Publishing Australia 2, 550 pp.(as Mobula eregoodootenkee)

Notarbartolo-di-Sciara, G. 1987. A revisionary study of the genus Mobula Rafinesque, 1810 (Chondrichthyes: Mobulidae) with the description of a new species. Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Zoology 97(1): 1-91.(as Mobula eregoodootenkee)

White, W.T., Corrigan, S., Yang, L., Henderson, A.C., Bazinet, A.L., Swofford, D.L. & Naylor, G.J.P. 2017. Phylogeny of the manta and devilrays (Chondrichthyes: mobulidae), with an updated taxonomic arrangement for the family. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 2017 zlx018. doi: 10.1093/zoolinnean/zlx018 Open access

White, W.T., Giles, J., Dharmadi & Potter, I.C. 2006. Data on the bycatch fishery and reproductive biology of mobulid rays (Myliobatiformes) in Indonesia. Fisheries Research 82: 65-73.

White, W.T., Last, P.R., Stevens, J.D., Yearsley, G.K., Fahmi & Dharmadi. 2006. Economically Important Sharks and Rays of Indonesia. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra, Australia.

Quick Facts

CAAB Code:37041001

Conservation:IUCN Data Deficient

Depth:0-50 m

Habitat:Pelagic - coastal

Max Size:Disc width 119 cm

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CAAB distribution map