Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar Linnaeus 1758


Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar, at Aqua Silkeborg. Source: JC Schou / Biopix. License: CC by Attribution-NonCommercial

Summary:
This northern hemisphere native was originally introduced to Tasmania and Victoria between 1864 and 1870 with little success.
Although somewhat similar to Brown Trout in appearance, Atlantic Salmon have a smaller mouth that does not extend back beyond the eye, a more slender caudal peduncle, a more deeply-forked caudal fin and lack an orange margin to the adipose fin.

Cite this page as:
Martin F. Gomon & Dianne J. Bray, Salmo salar in Fishes of Australia, accessed 23 Jan 2020, http://136.154.202.208/home/species/3624

Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar Linnaeus 1758

More Info


Distribution

Native to rivers draining to the North Atlantic. The species was released in various localities including Lake Jindabyne and the Burrinjuck Dam in New South Wales. Inhabits cool upper reaches of streams. 

Features

Meristic features: Dorsal fin 9-12; Anal fin 9-10; Pectoral fin 14-15; Pelvic fin 9-10; Gill rakers 15-24.

Body slender, tapering to a moderately shallow and long caudal peduncle; moderately compressed; greatest body depth usually at dorsal fin origin or slightly posterior to it, 18-22% of total length; head length about equal to or slightly greater than body depth, 20-­23 % of total length; eye moderate, 14-19% of head length; snout rounded; mouth terminal, large; mature males develop a pronounced hook or kype on lower jaw; teeth absent from head of vomer, those on shaft deciduous. 


Scales cycloid, moderately large; 109­-121 in lateral line. 


Dorsal fin origin forward of pelvic fin; caudal fin weakly forked in large adults; fleshy adipose fin behind dorsal; pelvic fin with a distinct axillary process

Size

To 150cm SL, usually 70-85cm.

Colour

Silvery blue above, side silvery; belly silvery white; black, often X-shaped spots on side and top of head, sometimes indistinct, few if any below lateral line; fins, including adipose fin dusky to pale; dorsal fin base usually with dark spots; caudal fin very sparsely spotted or plain.

Feeding

Feed on insects, crustaceans, molluscs and small fishes such as galaxiid fishes.

Biology

In Europe most populations are sea-going, but in Australia the species is wholly landlocked and probably entirely dependent of the release of hatchery-reared fish. Reproduction in Europe involves migration upstream where large (5-7mm diameter) eggs are laid in a nest excavated by the female in gravel substrate. Young remain in freshwater for 2-3 years before migrating downstream to spend several years at sea before returning upstream to spawn.

Fisheries

Atlantic Salmon form the basis of a major aquaculture fishery in Tasmania. 

Similar Species

Although somewhat similar to Brown Trout in appearance, Atlantic Salmon have a smaller mouth that does not extend back beyond the eye, a more slender caudal peduncle, a more deeply-forked caudal fin and lack an orange margin to the adipose fin.

Species Citation

Salmo salar Linnaeus, 1758, Systema Naturae 10th Edn: 308. Type locality: Oceans and rivers of Europe.

Author

Martin F. Gomon & Dianne J. Bray

Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar Linnaeus 1758

References


Allen, G.R. 1989. Freshwater Fishes of Australia. T.F.H. Publications. 240 pp.

Allen, G.R., Midgley, S.H. & M. Allen. 2002. Field Guide to the Freshwater Fishes of Australia. Western Australian Museum. 394 pp.

Johnston, R.M. 1889. The Salmonidae in Tasmania. Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania 1888: xv-xvi

Lintermans, M. 2004. Human-assisted dispersal of alien freshwater fish in Australia. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 38: 481-501.

Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae.  Holmiae : Salvii 10th Edn  824 pp.

McDowall, R.M. (ed.) 1980. Freshwater Fishes of South-eastern Australia. Sydney : A.H. & A.W. Reed 208 pp., figs, 32 pls.

Merrick, J.R. & Schmida, G.E. 1984. Australian Freshwater Fishes Biology and Management. Sydney : J.R. Merrick 409 pp. figs 280 col. figs.

Raadik, T.A. 2008. Family Salmonidae. pp. 211-213 in Gomon. M.F., Bray, D.J. & Kuiter, R.H (eds). Fishes of Australia's Southern Coast. Sydney : Reed New Holland 928 pp.

Yearsley, G.K., Last, P.R. & Ward, R.D. (eds) 1999. Australian Seafood Handbook. Hobart : CSIRO Marine Research 460 pp.

Quick Facts


CAAB Code:37094001

Fishing:Popular food fish

Habitat:Freshwater & marine

Max Size:150 cm SL

Native:Non-native

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