Smooth Toadfish, Tetractenos glaber (Fréminville 1813)


Other Names: Smooth Toado

A Smooth Toadfish, Tetractenos glaber, in Wollongong Harbour, New South Wales, July 2009. Source: Sascha Schultz / iNaturalist.org. License: CC by Attribution-NonCommercial

Summary:

A small pale yellowish to greenish pufferfish, with dark brown irregular spots and blotches overlain with four darker bands and a white belly. The spots elongate and become fewer on the lower sides. The Smooth Toadfish has a moderately long and robust body covered in minute embedded spines, with a distinct skin-fold along the lower sides, and the body 

The Smooth Toadfish is often abundant in bays and estuaries throughout southeastern Australia. Pufferfishes (toadfish) are very poisonous and this species should not be eaten - or fed to pets.

Video of a school of Smooth Toadfish at West Beach, Croajingolong National Park, East Gippsland, Victoria.


Cite this page as:
Bray, D.J. 2020, Tetractenos glaber in Fishes of Australia, accessed 04 Jun 2020, http://136.154.202.208/home/species/878

Smooth Toadfish, Tetractenos glaber (Fréminville 1813)

More Info


Distribution

Endemic to temperate waters of southeastern Australia, from Moreton Bay, Queensland, to Spencer Gulf, South Australia and around Tasmania. Smooth Toadfish are sometimes locally abundant, and inhabit mangroves, seagrass beds, sand flats, and muddy areas in shallow bays and estuaries, at depths of 0-20 m (mostly above 5 m). The Smooth Toadfish also occasionally enters freshwater above normal tidal influence.

Features

Dorsal fin 9-11; Anal fin 7-9; Caudal fin 11; Pectoral fin 15-18.

Body moderately long, robust, tapering to a slender caudal peduncle, with a distinct skinfold present along lower sides; body covered in minute spines.

Size

To 16 cm.

Colour

Pale yellowish to greenish above, white below, tail often reddish, iris red. Top and sides with dark brown irregular spots of varying sizes, overlain with four darker bands over the back and sides. Spots elongate and become fewer on the lower sides.

Feeding

Feeds mostly on benthic molluscs (mussels), crustaceans (especially crabs) and polychaete worms.

Similar Species

Differs from the Common Toadfish, Tetractenos hamiltoni, in skin texture and coloration. The Smooth Toadfish has larger spots and blotches, and minute spines embedded in the skin giving it a smooth feel, hence the common name. The Common Toadfish is covered in small prickles.

Species Citation

Tetrodon glaber Fréminville, 1813, Nouv. Bull. Sci. 3(67): 251, pl. 4(4). Type locality: Adventure Bay, Tasmania

Author

Bray, D.J. 2020

Resources

Atlas of Living Australia

Smooth Toadfish, Tetractenos glaber (Fréminville 1813)

References


  • Alquezar, R., Markich, S.J. & Booth, D.J. 2006. Metal accumulation in the smooth toadfish, Tetractenos glaber, in estuaries around Sydney, Australia. Environmental Pollution 142(1): 123-131. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2005.09.010
  • Bibron, G. 1855. in Duméril, A.H.A. Note sur un travail inédit de Bibron relatif aux poissons Plectognathes Gymnodontes (Diodons et Tétrodons). Revue et Magasin de Zoologie (Paris) 2 8: 274-282 (described as Aphanacanthe reticulatus)
  • Booth, D.J. & Schultz, D.L. 1999. Seasonal ecology, condition and reproductive patterns of the smooth toadfish Tetractenos glaber (Freminville) in the Hawkesbury estuarine system, Australia. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 121: 71-84. See ref at BHL
  • Connolly, R. 2009. Fish on Australian saltmarshes. pp. 131-149, in Saintilan, N. (ed.) Australian Saltmarsh Ecology.  CSIRO publishing, Collingwood, Victoria, AU.
  • Edgar, G.J. 2008. Australian Marine Life: the plants and animals of temperate waters. Sydney : Reed New Holland 2nd edn, 624 pp.
  • Edgar, G.J. & Shaw, C. 1995. The production and tropic ecology of shallow-water fish assemblages in Southern Australia. II. Diets of fishes and tropic relationships between fishes and benthos at Western Port, Victoria. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 194: 83-106.
  • Fréminville, M. 1813. Description de quelques nouvelles espèces des Poissons de l'ordre des Branchiosteges. Nouveau Bulletin des Sciences, par la Société Philomatique de Paris 3(67): 249-253.
  • Green, S.L. 1984. Ultrastructure and innervation of the swimbladder of Tetractenos glaber (Tetraodontidae). Cell and Tissue Research 237(2): 277-284. Abstract
  • Halstead, B.W. 1967. Poisonous and Venomous Marine Animals of the World. Washington, D.C. : U.S. Government Printing Office Vol. 2 1070 pp. (as Amblyrhynchotes glaber)
  • Hardy, G.S. 1983. Revision of Australian species of Torquigener Whitley (Tetraodontiformes: Tetraodontidae), and two new generic names for Australian puffer fishes. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 13(1/2): 1-48 figs 1-18
  • Hardy, G.S. 1994. Family Tetraodontidae. pp. 902-912, figs 795-804 in Gomon, M.F., Glover, C.J.M. & Kuiter, R.H (eds). The Fishes of Australia's South Coast. Adelaide : State Printer 992 pp. 810 figs.
  • Hutchins, J.B. & Swainston, R. 1986. Sea Fishes of Southern Australia. Complete field guide for anglers and divers. Perth : Swainston Publishing 180 pp.
  • Isbister, G.K., Son, J., Ujma, J., Smith, B., Milder, D.G., Wang, F.,  Maclean, C.J., Lin, C.S-Y., Kiernan, M.C. & Balit, C.R. 2002. Puffer fish poisoning: a potentially life-threatening condition. Med J Aust 177(11): 650-653. Abstract
  • Johnson, J.W. 2010. Fishes of the Moreton Bay Marine Park and adjacent continental shelf waters, Queensland, Australia. pp. 299-353 in Davie, P.J.F. & Phillips, J.A. Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Marine Biological Workshop, The Marine Fauna and Flora of Moreton Bay. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 54(3)
  • Kuiter, R.H. 1993. Coastal Fishes of South-eastern Australia. Bathurst : Crawford House Press 437 pp.
  • Kuiter, R.H. 1996. Guide to Sea Fishes of Australia. A comprehensive reference for divers and fishermen. Sydney, NSW, Australia : New Holland Publishers xvii, 434 pp.
  • Lardner, R., Ivantsoff, W. & Crowley, E.L.M. 1993. Recolonization by fishes of a rocky intertidal pool following repeated defaunation. Australian Zoologist 29: 1-2.
  • Last, P.R., Scott, E.O.G. & Talbot, F.H. 1983. Fishes of Tasmania. Hobart : Tasmanian Fisheries Development Authority 563 pp. figs. (as Torquigener glaber)
  • Matsuura, K. 2008. Families Ostraciidae, Tetraodontidae. pp. 842-856 in Gomon. M.F., Bray, D.J. & Kuiter, R.H (eds). Fishes of Australia's Southern Coast. Sydney : Reed New Holland 928 pp.
  • Regan, C.T. 1909. Descriptions of new marine fishes from Australia and the Pacific. Annals and Magazine of Natural History 8 4(51): 438-440 (described as Spheroides liosomus)
  • Shao, K., Liu, M., Larson, H., Harwell, H., Leis, J.L. & Matsuura, K. 2014. Tetractenos glaber . The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T193661A2255857. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2014-3.RLTS.T193661A2255857.en. Downloaded on 04 February 2020.
  • Smith, T.M, Hindell, J.S., Jenkins, G.P., Connolly, R.N. & Keo, M.J. 2011. Edge effects in patchy seagrass landscapes: The role of predation in determining fish distribution. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 399(1): 8-16.
  • Thomson, J.M. 1978. A Field Guide to the Common Sea & Estuary Fishes of Non-tropical Australia. Sydney : Collins 144 pp. (as Spheroides glaber)
  • Whitley, G.P. 1953. Toadfish poisoning. Australian Museum Magazine 11(2): 60-65 (as Sphaeroides glaber & Sphaeroides liosomus)
  • Quick Facts


    CAAB Code:37467003

    Conservation:IUCN Least Concern

    Danger:Poisonous

    Depth:0-20 m

    Habitat:Bays, estuaries

    Max Size:16 cm TL

    Native:Endemic

    Species Maps

    CAAB distribution map