States & territories
- New South Wales(16)
- Western Australia(7)
- Northern Territory(5)
- South Australia(3)
- Ashmore and Cartier Islands(1)
Habitat & ecology
- Thickray Sole Aesopia cornuta Kaup 1858 Actinopterygii > Pleuronectiformes > Soleidae > Aesopia A greyish to yellowish-brown sole, with darker 12-16 bars edged with black on the head, body and fins, and a black caudal fin with bright yellow blotches. The first dorsal-fin ray is elongate and thickened with many hair-like projections on the upper surface. The Thickray Sole often lies buried in sand with only the eyes exposed.
- Spotted Flounder Ammotretis lituratus (Richardson 1844) Actinopterygii > Pleuronectiformes > Rhombosoleidae > Ammotretis A well-camouflaged beige, sandy or greyish flounder, sometimes with a number of darker spots scattered on the head, body and/or fins.
- Longsnout Flounder Ammotretis rostratus Günther 1862 Actinopterygii > Pleuronectiformes > Rhombosoleidae > Ammotretis A sandy-coloured to pale brown flounder speckled with variable darker spots, and a whitish pectoral fin on the blind side (underside). The Longsnout Flounder has both eyes on the right side of the head, the dorsal fin originating at the tip of the hooked snout, and two pelvic fins This is the most common flounder in Port Phillip, Victoria - mostly extremely well-camouflaged juveniles that are difficult to see.
- Peppered Sole Aseraggodes lenisquamis Randall 2005 Actinopterygii > Pleuronectiformes > Soleidae > Aseraggodes An pale brown to orange-brown sole with diffuse blackish blotches on the upper side (the three along lateral line and one above the first blotch the largest), numerous small, irregular, dark-edged whitish spots on the head and body, and greyish-brown fin rays with small dark-edged whitish spots and white ray tips.
- Dappled Sole Aseraggodes melanostictus (Peters 1877) Actinopterygii > Pleuronectiformes > Soleidae > Aseraggodes A pale brown sole with darker scale edges, faint irregular dark–edged pale markings over head and body, and very irregular dark brown blotches, most much larger than eye, the two largest on lateral line to either side of middle of body; fins with dark dots (Randall 2005).
- Black Sole Brachirus niger (Macleay 1880) Actinopterygii > Pleuronectiformes > Soleidae > Brachirus A uniformly blackish or pale brownish sole with large patches of dark brown cirri, blackish pectoral fins, and a narrow whitish margin on the dorsal, anal and caudal fins. The blind side cream to whitish. This species has frequently been referred to as Brachirus nigra .
- Spotfin Tongue Sole Cynoglossus maculipinnis Rendahl 1921 Actinopterygii > Pleuronectiformes > Cynoglossidae > Cynoglossus A brown tongue sole with a pair of prominent round black spots on the rear third of the body.
- Grey Mirrorbelly Monacoa griseus Poulsen, Sado, Hahn, Byrkjedal, Moku & Miya 2016 Actinopterygii > Argentiniformes > Opisthoproctidae > Monacoa A mirrorbelly with a prominent snout protruding into a distinct tube, the anal fin easily discernible, situated on the posterior outer margin of the "sole". The posterior part of the "sole" (flattened underside) is darkly/uniformly pigmented, with an abrupt change in pigmentation in front of pelvic fins, including a weaker pigment blotch in front of this abrupt change. In species of the genus Monacoa, bioluminescence from the rectal light bulb is produced by the bacteria Photobacterium phosphoreum. This species was previously known as Opisthoproctus grimaldii Zugmayer, 1911.
- Lemon Tongue Sole Paraplagusia bilineata (Bloch 1787) Actinopterygii > Pleuronectiformes > Cynoglossidae > Paraplagusia A tan-coloured tongue sole with a marbled pattern of dark wavy lines enclosing pale patches, two lateral lines on the eyed side, none on blind side. In Australia, the Lemon Tongue Sole has also been called Paraplagusia blochii which is a junior synonym.
- Southern Peacock Sole Pardachirus hedleyi Ogilby 1916 Actinopterygii > Pleuronectiformes > Soleidae > Pardachirus A brownish sole with dark-edged white blotches and scattered darker blotches on the upper side.