|A non-native Australian family, the Cichlidae comprises approximately 105 genera and around 1,300 species (Nelson 1994), with at least eight genera and 17 species reported from Australian waters. Cichlids are noted for having several examples of major radiations into species flocks in several African rift lakes.|
Cichlids occur naturally in North America, Central America, South America, Madagascar and Africa to India. While most species are found in freshwater, some have a high salt tolerance and can spread rapidly through marine environments.
have had adverse effects on native fishes (Arthington et al. 1983).
|Cichlids are well established in the aquarium trade and some have been deliberately introduced as food fishes in many parts of the world.|
Cichlids are popular aquarium fishes and a large number of species are found in the aquarium trade. Accidental and intentional releases occur (McKay 1984) frequently. Introductions of exotic fishes in tropical regions of Australia have had adverse effects on native fishes (Arthington et al. 1983).
Agassiz, J.L.R. in Spix, J.B. von & Agassiz, J.L.R. (1831). Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam annos MDCCCXVII-MDCCCXX jussu et auspiciis Maximiliani Josephi I. colleget et pingendso curavit Dr J. B. de Spix. Monachii. Selecta Piscium Brasiliam. Part 1 pp. 1–82 pls 1–48
Arthington, A.H., Milton, D.A. & McKay, R.J. (1983). Effects of urban development and habitat alterations on the distribution and abundance of native and exotic freshwater fish in the Brisbane region, Queensland. Aust. J. Ecol. 8(2): 87–101
Brind, W. L. (1918). A new subspecies of Thorichthys helleri. Aquat. Life 3: 119–120
Gill, T.N. (1858). Synopsis of the fresh water fishes of the western portion of the island of Trinidad, W. I. Ann. Lyc. Nat. Hist. N.Y. 6(10–13): 363–430
Gill, T.N. (1862). On the West African genus Hemichromis and descriptions of new species in the museums of the Academy and Smithsonian Institution. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 14: 134–139
Günther, A. (1860). Second list of cold-blooded vertebrata collected by Mr. Fraser in the Andes of western Ecuador. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1859(3): 402–420.
Günther, A. (1864). Report of a collection of fishes made by Messrs. Dow, Godman, and Salvin in Guatemala. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1864(1): 144–154
Günther, A. (1867). On the fishes of the states of Central America, founded upon specimens collected in fresh and marine waters of various parts of that country by Messrs. Salvin and Godman and Capt. J. M. Dow. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1866(3): 600–604
Günther, A. (1894). Descriptions of the reptiles and fishes collected by Mr. E. Coode-Hore on Lake Tanganyika. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1893(4): 628–632
Heckel, J.J. (1840). Johann Natterer's neue Flussfische Brasilien's nach den Beobachtungen und Mittheilungen des Entdeckers beschrieben (Erste Abtheilung, Die Labroiden). Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien 2: 325–471
Hubbs, C.L. (1935). Fresh-water fishes collected in British Honduras and Guatemala. Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool., Univ. Mich. 28: 1–22
McKay, R.J. (1984). Introductions of exotic fishes in Australia. pp. 177–199 in Courtnay, W.R. Jr & Staffer, J.R. Jr (eds) Distribution, Biology and Management of Exotic Fishes. Baltimore : John Hopkins Univ. Press
Nelson, J.S. (1994). Fishes of the World. New York : John Wiley & Sons 3rd Edn 600 pp.
Quoy, J.R.C. & Gaimard, J.P. (1824). Chapter 8. Poissons. pp. 183–328 pls 43–65 in Freycinet, L.C.D. de (ed.) Voyage autour du Monde, entrepris par ordre du Roi, exécuté sur les corvettes de S.M. l'Uranie et la Physicienne, pendant les années 1817, 1818, 1819 et 1820 + atlas iv. Paris : Pillet Aîné Vol. 1 712 pp. 96 pls
Steindachner, F. (1864). Ichthyologische Mittheilungen. (VII.). Verh. K-K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 14: 223–232