Order TORPEDINIFORMES


Common name: Electric rays
Summary:
Bottom-dwelling marine rays with the ability to produce powerful electric shocks used both for defence and to stun prey. 
Author: Dianne J. Bray

Cite this page as:
Dianne J. Bray, Electric rays, TORPEDINIFORMES in Fishes of Australia, accessed 23 Nov 2017, http://fishesofaustralia.net.au/Home/order/52

Order References


Compagno, L.J.V. & Last, P.R. 1999. Families Narkidae, Hypnidae, Torpedinidae. pp. 1443-1451 in Carpenter, K.E. & Niem, V.H. (eds). The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fisheries Purposes. Rome : FAO Vol. 3 pp. 1397-2068.

Helfman, G.S., Collette, B.B. & D.E. Facey. 1997. The Diversity of Fishes.Blackwell Science. 528 pp.

Last, P.R. & Stevens, J.D. 2009. Sharks and Rays of Australia. Collingwood : CSIRO Publishing Australia 2, 550 pp.