Dwarf Flathead Gudgeon, Philypnodon macrostomus Hoese & Reader 2006


A Dwarf Flathead Gudgeon, Philypnodon macrostomus. Source: Gunther Schmida / http://www.guntherschmida.com.au. License: CC BY Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike 3.0

Summary:

A small mottled brown gudgeon with broad dark bands interspersed with orange to whitish bands on the first dorsal fin, narrower bands on the second dorsal fin, and a dark vertical bar at base of caudal fin. The Dwarf flathead gudgeon has a large mouth extending beyond the eye in males, and restricted gill openings that do not reach to below the eye.


Cite this page as:
Dianne J. Bray, Philypnodon macrostomus in Fishes of Australia, accessed 21 Nov 2018, http://fishesofaustralia.net.au/home/species/1178

Dwarf Flathead Gudgeon, Philypnodon macrostomus Hoese & Reader 2006

More Info


Distribution

Endemic to and widespread in coastal drainages of southeastern Australia from central Queensland to South Australia, together with scattered localities in the Murray River system of South Australia, New South Wales and Victoria (Gunbower Creek).

Usually found in coastal freshwater rivers, occasionally occurring in the upper reaches of estuaries and coastal lagoons, although the species may be found in marine waters. Prefers still to gently-flowing streams, lakes and dams, usually on muddy and rocky bottoms, often near aquatic vegetation or woody debris.

Features

Dorsal fin VI-VII + I, 8-9; Anal fin I, 7-9; Pectoral fin 15-16; Caudal fin 15 (segmented); Pelvic fin I, 5; Vertebrae 30-32; Gill rakers 11-12; Vertical scale rows on sides 32–44.

Head length 31–35 % SL; snout broad, of moderate length; gill openings restricted, reaching forward to below posterior margin of preopercles; tongue tip rounded to truncate; top of head scaled to just behind eyes, though sometimes reduced.

Colour

Brown to black, with irregular blotches and a vertical black bar at base of caudal fin; 2–3 dark stripes radiating posteriorly from eye; black vertical bar on pectoral-fin base; lips generally black; dorsal fins with stripes; caudal fin spotted; other fins clear to dusky.

Feeding

Benthic carnivore - feeds on insects, insect larvae, and tiny crustaceans.

Biology

Little is known of the biology of this species, although it is presumably similar to that of the Flathead Gudgeon, P. grandiceps. Females produce transparent teardrop-shaped eggs that are protected by the male parent until the larvae hatch after 4-5 days.

Similar Species

Philypnodon macrostomus differs from the similar Flathead Gudgeon, Philypnodon grandiceps, in having a narrower gill opening (below posterior preopercular margin versus below eye in P. grandiceps); sides of belly without vertical bands (versus 4–5 thin brown almost vertical lines); tongue tip rounded to truncate (versus bilobed); body often mottled (versus body uniformly coloured) and having more numerous vertebrae (usually 31–32, versus usually 29–30). P. macrostomus also attains a much smaller size, usually less than 50 mm SL, with the largest specimen known 60 mm SL (versus commonly reaching a size of 70 mm SL and reaching a maximum size of almost 90 mm SL). 

Etymology

The species name macrostomus is from the Greek macro meaning 'large' and stoma meaning 'mouth', in reference to the large mouth of this species.

Species Citation

Philypnodon macrostomus Hoese & Reader, 2006, Mem. Mus. Vict. 63(1): 16, figs 1-3. Type locality: creek 8 km from Glenreagh, N of Coffs Harbour, NSW.

Author

Dianne J. Bray

Resources

Australian Faunal Directory

Dwarf Flathead Gudgeon, Philypnodon macrostomus Hoese & Reader 2006

References


Allen, G.R., Midgley, S.H. & Allen, M. 2002. Field Guide to the Freshwater Fishes of Australia. Perth : Western Australian Museum 394 pp.

Cashner, R.C., Hawkes, G.P., Gartside, D.F. & Marsh-Matthews E. 1999. Fishes of the Nymboida, Mann and Orara Rivers of the Clarence River Drainage, New South Wales, Australia. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 121: 89-100. (p. 95, as Philypnodon sp.)

Hammer, M.P., Adams, M. & Foster, R. 2012. Update to the catalogue of South Australian freshwater fishes (Petromyzontida & Actinopterygii). Zootaxa 3593: 59–74.

Hammer, M.P. & Walker, K.F. 2004. A catalogue of South Australian freshwater fishes, including new records, range extensions and translocations. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 128(2): 85-97.

Hoese, D.F. 2008. Family Eleotridae. pp. 746-748 in Gomon. M.F., Bray, D.J. & Kuiter, R.H (eds) Fishes of Australia's Southern Coast. Sydney : Reed New Holland 928 pp.

Hoese, D.F., Larson, H.K. & Llewellyn, L.C. 1980. Family Eleotridae: gudgeons. pp. 169-185 19 figs in McDowall, R.M. (ed.) Freshwater Fishes of South-eastern Australia. Sydney : A.H. & A.W. Reed 208 pp., figs, 32 pls.

Hoese, D.F. & Larson, H.K. 1994. Family Eleotrididae. pp. 810-813, figs 715-717 in Gomon, M.F., Glover, C.J.M. & Kuiter, R.H. (eds) The Fishes of Australia's South Coast. Adelaide : State Printer 992 pp. 810 figs.

Hoese, D.F. & Reader, S. 2006. Description of a new species of dwarf Philypnodon (Teleostei: Gobioidei: Eleotridae) from south-eastern Australia. Memoirs of Museum Victoria 63(1): 16-19. PDF Open access

Larson, H.K. 2011. The marine temperate gobioids of southern Australia and the New Zealand region. Chapter 2.4, pp. 235-241. In: R.A. Patzner et al. (eds) The Biology of Gobies. CRC Press, Science Publishers.

Lintermans, M. 2007. Fishes of the Murray-Darling Basin — An Introductory Guide. Canberra : Murray-Darling Basin Commission 157 pp. 
 
Merrick, J.R. & Schmida, G.E. 1984. Australian Freshwater Fishes Biology and Management. Sydney : J.R. Merrick 409 pp. figs 280 col. figs.

Pusey, B.J., Kennard, M.J. & Arthington, A.H. 2004. Freshwater Fishes of North-eastern Australia. Collingwood, Victoria : CSIRO Publishing 684 pp.

Thacker, C.E., Unmack, P.J., Matsui, L., Duong P. & Huang, E. 2008. Phylogeography of Philypnodon species (Teleostei: Eleotridae) across south-eastern Australia: testing patterns of connectivity across drainage divides and among coastal rivers. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society of London 95: 175–192.

Quick Facts


CAAB Code:37429047

Depth:0-3 m

Habitat:Freshwater, estuarine

Max Size:6 cm SL

Native:Endemic

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