Senator Wrasse, Pictilabrus laticlavius (Richardson 1839)


Other Names: Green Parrotfish, Patrician Wrasse, Purple-banded Wrasse, Senator Fish, Senatorfish, Senatorwrasse

A terminal phase (male) Senator Wrasse, Pictilabrus laticlavius, at Fairy Bower, Manly, New South Wales, September 2013. Source: John Turnbull / Flickr. License: CC BY Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike

Summary:

Males are green with maroon or purplish stripes along the sides. Females and juveniles are reddish to greenish-brown  with a row of black spots above the lateral line, 4-5 dusky bars on the lower sides and a black spot on the rear of the dorsal fin.

Senator wrasses are common amongst kelp and other macroalgae on reefs along the southern coast.


Cite this page as:
Dianne J. Bray, Pictilabrus laticlavius in Fishes of Australia, accessed 14 Nov 2018, http://fishesofaustralia.net.au/home/species/265

Senator Wrasse, Pictilabrus laticlavius (Richardson 1839)

More Info


Distribution

Endemic to temperate waters of southern Australia from about Bryon Bay (New South Wales), to the Houtman Abrolhos (Western Australia), and around Tasmania.

This relatively common wrasse inhabits coastal reefs and algal beds in 3-40 metres, and is common in kelp and macro-algal beds along the south coast. It also occurs on sponge covered reefs. In Western Australia the species occurs in deeper water than the closely related False Senator Wrasse, Pictilabrus viridis.

Senator wrasses are site-attached, meaning that individuals have a home-range. Females have overlapping home-ranges and males are territorial during the breeding season, and exclude all other males from their range.

Features

Dorsal fin IX, 11; Anal fin III, 10; Caudal fin 12; Pectoral fin 13; Pelvic fin I, 5; Lateral line scales 25-26.

Body moderately deep (26-32% SL), compressed.  Head moderately large (26-34% SL), dorsal profile convex; eyes moderately large (16-27% HL); mouth small, upper jaw not reaching as far as eye; teeth small, caniniform, anterior pair in upper jaw and anterior two pairs in lower jaw enlarged and recurved; each side of upper jaw with enlarged canine at rear. 


Scales moderately large, cycloid, firmly attached, covering body; head naked except for one to three rows of cheek scales and eight to ten large scales on opercle; lateral-line abruptly curved downwards beneath last spines of dorsal fin. 


Dorsal fin continuous, with elongate base and uniform height; anal fin similar to and opposite rear half of dorsal fin; caudal fin truncate.  Pectoral fins short, rounded. Pelvic fins short, arising beneath pectoral-fin bases, not reaching near anus.

Size

To 25 cm SL

Colour

Juveniles and females are reddish-brown or greenish with a single row of black spots on the back above the lateral-line, and four or five faint dusky bars on the lower part of the body; dorsal fin with black spot between first three spines and last two soft rays; small dark spot at bases of dorsal and anal rays, fins with dusky margins.

Adult males are deep green with two dark violet or reddish bands on the head and body, separated by pale yellow interspace; dark wedge-shaped bar extending down from upper band just behind pectoral fin; head with pale mauve radiating lines around eye; dorsal, anal and caudal fins pale reddish-green or deep blue-violet, inner halves paler, and fins spotted with blue; dark spot between first three dorsal-fin spines.

Feeding

Carnivore - feeds on a range of benthic invertebrates, such as crustaceans (amphipods and small decapods) and gastropod molluscs.

Biology

The Senator Wrasse is a protogynous hermaphrodite, meaning that individuals mature into females (Initial Phase) during their first year, and change sex into males (Terminal Phase) during their 2nd to 5th year. They have a life span of up to 10 years. Spawning occurs during spring and summer months.

Fisheries

Caught by recreational anglers, and possibly taken as incidental bycatch in commercial trawls.

Conservation

IUCN Red List: Least Concern.

Similar Species

Differs from the False Senator Wrasse, Pictilabrus viridis in having rounded pectoral fins with the middle rays longest (vs pectoral fins pointed, upper rays longest); males with a distinctive dark wedge shaped bar on body behind pectoral fin and no bar or, at most, only an indistinct bar at base of each pectoral fin (vs males without dark bar on body but with distinct dark bar at base of each pectoral fin).

Etymology

The specific name laticlavius alludes to the ornamental blue spots on the fins, resembling the 'clavi' on the borders of the Roman patrician dress (Richardson, 1844). Hence the common name 'patrician wrasse' (Richardson, 1844) or senator wrasse (Russell 1988).

Species Citation

Labrus laticlavius Richardson 1839, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 7: 99. Type locality: Port Arthur, Tasmania.

Author

Dianne J. Bray

Senator Wrasse, Pictilabrus laticlavius (Richardson 1839)

References


Barrett, N.S. 1995. Short- and long-term movement patterns of six temperate reef fishes (Families Labridae and Monacanthidae). Marine and Freshwater Research 46(5): 853-860.

Coleman, N. 1980. Australian Sea Fishes South of 30ºS. Lane Cove, NSW : Doubleday Australia Pty Ltd 309 pp.

Edgar, G.J. 1997. Australian Marine Life; the plants and animals of temperate waters. Reed Books. 544 pp.

Edgar, G.J., Last, P.R. & Wells, M.W. 1982. Coastal Fishes of Tasmania and Bass Strait. Hobart : Cat & Fiddle Press 175 pp.

Gomon, M.F. &. Russell, B.C. 1994. Family Labridae. pp. 675-699 in Gomon, M.F., Glover, C.J.M. & Kuiter, R.H (eds). The Fishes of Australia's South Coast. Adelaide : State Printer 992 pp. 810 figs.

Henry, G.W. & Lyle, J.M. 2003. The National Recreational and Indigenous Fishing Survey. NSW Fisheries Final Report Series: 48. Fisheries Research & Development Corporation and the Fisheries Action Program, Canberra, Australia.

Hutchins, J.B. 2001. Biodiversity of shallow reef fish assemblages in Western Australia using a rapid censusing technique. Records of the Western Australian Museum 20: 247-270.

Hutchins, J.B. & S.M. Morrison. 1996. Pictilabrus brauni, a new species of labrid fish from South-western Australia. Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie 23(1-2): 39-42.

Kuiter, R.H. 1993. Coastal Fishes of South-eastern Australia. Bathurst : Crawford House Press 437 pp.

Kuiter, R.H. 1996. Guide to Sea Fishes of Australia. New Holland. Pp. 433.

Kuiter, R.H. 2000. Coastal Fishes of South-eastern Australia. Gary Allen. Pp. 437.

Kuiter, R.H. 2002. Fairy and rainbow wrasses and their relatives – a comprehensive guide to selected labrids. TMC Publishing, Chorleywood, UK.

Last, P.R., Scott, E.O.G. & Talbot, F.H. 1983. Fishes of Tasmania. Hobart : Tasmanian Fisheries Development Authority 563 pp. figs.

Morton, J.K. 2007. The ecology of three species of wrasse (Pisces: Labridae) on temperate rocky reefs of New South Wales, Australia. PhD thesis, Faculty of Science and Information Technology, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle.

Morton, J.K., Gladstone, W. Hughes, J.M. & Stewart, J. 2008. Comparison of the life histories of three co-occurring wrasses (Teleostei: Labridae) in coastal waters of south-eastern Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research 59(7): 560-574.

Morton, J.K.. Platell, M.E. & Gladstone, W. 2008. Differences in feeding ecology among three co-occurring species of wrasse (Teleostei: Labridae) on rocky reefs of temperate Australia. Marine Biology 154: 577–592.

Russell, B.C. 1988. Revision of the labrid fish genus Pseudolabrus and allied genera. Records of the Australian Museum. Supplement 9: 1-72.

Russell, B.C. & Gomon, M.F. 2008. Family Labridae. pp. 638-659 in Gomon. M.F., Bray, D.J. & Kuiter, R.H (eds). Fishes of Australia's Southern Coast. Sydney : Reed New Holland 928 pp. 

Russell, B. & Pollard, D. 2010. Pictilabrus laticlavius. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 11 February 2012.

Quick Facts


CAAB Code:37384020

Biology:Able to change sex

Conservation:IUCN Least Concern

Depth:3-40 metres

Habitat:Reef associated

Max Size:30 cm TL

Native:Endemic

Species Maps

CAAB distribution map