Rainbow Cale, Heteroscarus acroptilus (Richardson 1846)


Other Names: Marine Rainbowfish, Rainbow Fish, Rainbowfish

A male Rainbow Cale, Heteroscarus acroptilus, at Bass Point, New South Wales, January 2017. Source: John Turnbull / Flickr. License: CC by Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike

Summary:
Males have two rows of broad dark blotches along the sides, iridescent blue lines on the head, a blue submarginal band on the dorsal, anal and pelvic fins, and elongate anterior dorsal-fin spines. Females and juveniles are yellowish to greenish or reddish-brown with dark markings on the sides.
The Rainbow Cale was previously known as Odax acroptilus.

Video of a Rainbow Cale

Cite this page as:
Bray, D.J. 2017, Heteroscarus acroptilus in Fishes of Australia, accessed 18 Oct 2018, http://fishesofaustralia.net.au/home/species/300

Rainbow Cale, Heteroscarus acroptilus (Richardson 1846)

More Info


Distribution

Seal Rocks, New South Wales, to Point Gregory, Western Australia, and south to Waterfall Bay, Tasmania.
Mostly found on exposed rocky reefs in areas covered with brown macroalgae and with broad-leafed seagrasses, such as Posidonia.

Remarks

The Rainbow Cale has previously been called Odax acroptilus in Australia.

Species Citation

Scarus acroptilus Richardson, 1846, Zool. Voy. Erebus Terror 2(2): 69. Type locality: Australia.

Author

Bray, D.J. 2017

Resources

Australian Faunal Directory

Rainbow Cale, Heteroscarus acroptilus (Richardson 1846)

References


Castelnau, F.L. de 1872. Contribution to the ichthyology of Australia. 2. Note on some South Australian fishes. Proceedings of the Zoological and Acclimatisation Society of Victoria 1: 243-248 (as Heteroscarus filamentosus & Heteroscarus modestus)

Castelnau, F.L. de 1875. Researches on the fishes of Australia. Intercolonial Exhibition Essays. 2. pp. 1–52 in, Philadelphia Centennial Exhibition of 1876 : Official Record. Melbourne. (as Pseudoscarus modestus)

Choat, J.H. & Clements, K.D. 1992. Diet in Odacid and Aplodactylid fishes from Australia and New Zealand. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 43(6): 1451-1459.

Clements, K.D., Alfaro, M.E., Fessler, J.L. & Westneat, M.W. 2004. Relationships of the temperate Australasian labrid fish tribe Odacini (Perciformes; Teleostei). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 32: 575–587.

De Vis, C.W. 1885. New fishes in the Queensland Museum. No. 5. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 1 9(4): 869-887 (as Heteroscarus tenuiceps)

Edgar, G.J. 2008. Australian Marine Life: the plants and animals of temperate waters. Sydney : Reed New Holland 2nd edn, 624 pp.

Edgar, G.J., Last, P.R. & Wells, M.W. 1982. Coastal Fishes of Tasmania and Bass Strait. Hobart : Cat & Fiddle Press 175 pp.

Gomon, M.F. 1994. Family Odacidae. pp. 700-710 figs 612-621 in Gomon, M.F., Glover, C.J.M. & Kuiter, R.H. (eds). The Fishes of Australia's South Coast. Adelaide : State Printer 992 pp. 810 figs.

Gomon. M.F. 2008. Family Odacidae. pp. 659-667 in Gomon. M.F., Bray, D.J. & Kuiter, R.H (eds). Fishes of Australia's Southern Coast. Sydney : Reed New Holland 928 pp.

Gomon, M.F. & Paxton, J.R. 1986. A revision of the Odacidae, a temperate Australian-New Zealand labroid fish family. Indo-Pacific Fishes 8: 1-57.

Hutchins, J.B. 1994. A survey of the nearshore reef fish fauna of Western Australia's west and south coasts — The Leeuwin Province. Records of the Western Australian Museum, Supplement 46: 1-66 figs 1-6 

Hutchins, J.B. 1997. Checklist of fishes of the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia. pp. 239-253 in Wells, F. (ed.). The Marine Fauna and Flora of the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia. Perth : Western Australian Museum.

Hutchins, J.B. 2001. Biodiversity of shallow reef fish assemblages in Western Australia using a rapid censusing technique. Records of the Western Australian Museum 20: 247-270.

Hutchins, J.B. 2005. Checklist of marine fishes of Recherche Archipelago and adjacent mainland waters. pp. 425-449 in Wells, F.E., Walker, D.I. & Kendrick, G.A. (eds). Proceedings of the Twelfth International Marine Biological Workshop: The Marine Flora and Fauna of Esperance, Western Australia. Perth : Western Australian Museum. 

Hutchins, J.B. & Swainston, R. 1986. Sea Fishes of Southern Australia. Complete field guide for anglers and divers. Perth : Swainston Publishing 180 pp.

Hutchins, J.B. & Thompson, M. 1983. The Marine and Estuarine Fishes of South-western Australia. Perth : Western Australian Museum 103 pp. 345 figs.

Hyndes, G.A., Kendrick, A.J., MacArthur, L.D. & Stewart, E. 2003. Differences in the species- and size-composition of fish assemblages in three distinct seagrass habitats with differing plant and meadow structure. Marine Biology 142: 1195-1206.

Johnson, J.W. 1999. Annotated checklist of the fishes of Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 43(2): 709-762.

Kuiter, R.H. 1993. Coastal Fishes of South-eastern Australia. Bathurst : Crawford House Press 437 pp.

Kuiter, R.H. 1996. Guide to Sea Fishes of Australia. A comprehensive reference for divers and fishermen. Sydney, NSW, Australia : New Holland Publishers xvii, 434 pp.

Kuiter, R.H. 2002. Fairy & Rainbow Wrasses and their Relatives. Chorleywood, U.K. : TMC Publishing 207 pp.

Kuiter, R.H. 2010. Labridae fishes: wrasses. Seaford, Victoria, Australia : Aquatic Photographics 398 pp. 

Last, P.R., Scott, E.O.G. & Talbot, F.H. 1983. Fishes of Tasmania. Hobart : Tasmanian Fisheries Development Authority 563 pp. figs.

MacArthur, L.D. & Hyndes, G.A. 2001. Differential use of seagrass assemblages by a suite of odacid species. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 52: 79-90.

MacArthur, L.D. & Hyndes, G.A. 2007. Varying foraging strategies of Labridae in seagrass habitats: herbivory in temperate seagrass meadows? Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 340: 247-258.

Macleay, W.J. 1878. Descriptions of some new fishes from Port Jackson and King George's Sound. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 1 3(1): 33-37 pls 2-5 (as Heteroscarus castelnaui)

McCoy, F. 1888. Prodromus of the Zoology of Victoria. Decade 17. Melbourne : George Robertson Vol. 2 224-257 pls 161-170. (as Heteroscarus macleayi)

Neira, F.J., A.G. Miskiewicz & T. Trnski. 1998. Larvae of temperate Australian fishes: laboratory guide for larval fish identification. University of Western Australia Press. 474 pp.
Pollard, J. (ed.) 1980. G.P. Whitley's Handbook of Australian Fishes. North Sydney : Jack Pollard Publishing Pty Ltd 629 pp.

Richardson, J. 1846. Ichthyology. 53-74 pls 31-41, 43-44 & 53 (part) in Richardson, J. & Gray, J.E. (eds). The Zoology of the Voyage of H.M.S. Erebus and Terror under the Command of Captain Sir James Clark Ross, R.N., F.R.S., during the years 1839–43. London : E.W. Janson Vol. 2 139 pp. 

Roughley, T.C. 1957. Fish and Fisheries of Australia. Sydney : Angus & Robertson 341 pp.

Russell, B., Clements, K.D., Choat, J.H., Rocha, L.A., Myers, R., Lazuardi, M.E., Muljadi, A., Pardede, S. & Rahardjo, P. 2012. Heteroscarus acroptilus. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. . Downloaded on 09 May 2014.

Scott, T.D., Glover, C.J.M. & Southcott, R.V. 1974. The Marine and Freshwater Fishes of South Australia. Adelaide : Government Printer 392 pp. figs.


Shepherd, S.A., Edgar, G.J. & Barrett, N.S. 2005. Reef fishes of the Althorpe Islands and adjacent coasts of central South Australia. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 129: 183-192.

Steindachner, F. 1884. Ichthyologische Beiträge (13)1. Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Fische Australiens. Sitzungsberichte der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien 88(1): 1065-1108, figs 1-8 (as Heteroscarus elegans)

Swainston, R. 2011. Swainston's Fishes of Australia: The complete illustrated guide. Camberwell, Victoria : Penguin Australia 836 pp. 

Valenciennes, A. in Cuvier, G.L. & Valenciennes, A. 1839. Histoire Naturelle des Poissons. Paris : Levrault Vol. 13 505 pp. pls 369-388.

Waite, E.R. 1921. Illustrated catalogue of the fishes of South Australia. Records of the South Australian Museum (Adelaide) 2(1): 1-208 293 figs pl. 1

Quick Facts


CAAB Code:37385010

Biology:Able to change sex

Conservation:IUCN Least Concern

Depth:1-60 m

Habitat:Reef associated

Max Size:24 cm SL

Native:Endemic

Species Maps

CAAB distribution map