Bumphead Parrotfish, Bolbometopon muricatum (Valenciennes 1840)


Other Names: Double-headed Parrotfish, Green Humphead Parrotfish, Humphead Parrotfish, Hump-head Parrotfish

Bumphead Parrotfish, Bolbometopon muricatum, at Tulamben, Bali, Indonesia. Source: Klaus Stiefel / Flickr. License: CC by Attribution-NonCommercial

Summary:

Named for the prominent hump on the forehead, the Giant Bumphead Parrotfish is the largest known parrotfish - and the largest coral predator. This species is an important reef bioeroder - sand-makers on coral reefs.


Cite this page as:
Bray, D.J. 2018, Bolbometopon muricatum in Fishes of Australia, accessed 24 Jan 2019, http://fishesofaustralia.net.au/home/species/387

Bumphead Parrotfish, Bolbometopon muricatum (Valenciennes 1840)

More Info


Distribution

Elsewhere the species is widespread in the tropical Indo-West Pacific - from  the Red Sea eastwards to French Polynesia, north to Taiwan, southern Japan, and Wake Island, south to northern Australia and New Caledonia.

Occurs in small to large aggregations on outer lagoon and seawards reefs, and will also forage on outer reef flats at low tide.

Size

Grows up to 1.5 m in length and 75 kg in weight.

Feeding

Feeds mostly on live corals, but also consumes benthic algae. Individuals either bite off large chunks of coral with their powerful jaws and fused teeth, or use their large head to ram corals, breaking them into smaller pieces. David Bellwood at James Cook University, Townsville, estimates that a large Bumpdhead Parrotfish may consume as much as 5 tonnes of reef in one year - creating tonnes of coral reef sand in the process.

Biology

Spawns in large schools on outer reefs during summer months.

Fisheries

Heavily fished in most parts of its range.

Conservation

  • IUCN Red List : Vulnerable
  • Although once considered common or abundant throughout much of its range, the species is now considered to be rare in many areas, due primarily to fishing pressure in many parts of its range.
  • Species Citation

    Scarus muricatus Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840, Histoire Naturelle des Poissons Vol. 14: 208, pl. 402. Type locality: Java.

    Author

    Bray, D.J. 2018

    Resources

    Australian Faunal Directory

    Bumphead Parrotfish, Bolbometopon muricatum (Valenciennes 1840)

    References


    Allen, G.R. 1997. Marine Fishes of Tropical Australia and South-east Asia. Perth : Western Australian Museum 292 pp. 106 pls.

    Allen, G.R. & Erdmann, M.V. 2012. Reef fishes of the East Indies. Perth : Tropical Reef Research 3 vols, 1260 pp.

    Allen, G.R. & Smith-Vaniz, W.F. 1994. Fishes of Cocos (Keeling) Islands. Atoll Research Bulletin 412: 1-21.

    Allen, G.R., Steene, R.C. & Orchard, M. 2007. Fishes of Christmas Island. Christmas Island : Christmas Island Natural History Association 2 edn, 284 pp.

    Allen, G.R. & Swainston, R. 1988. The Marine Fishes of North-Western Australia. A field guide for anglers and divers. Perth, WA : Western Australian Museum vi 201 pp., 70 pls.

    Bellwood, D.R. 1994. A phylogenetic study of the parrotfish family Scaridae (Pisces: Labroidea), with a revision of genera. Records of the Australian Museum Supplement 20: 1–86 DOI:10.3853/j.0812-7387.20.1994.51 Open access

    Bellwood, D.R. 2001. Scaridae. pp. 3468-3492 in Carpenter, K.E. & Niem, T.H. (eds). The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fisheries Purposes. Rome : FAO Vol. 6 pp. 3381-4218.

    Bellwood, D.R. & Choat, J.H. 1989. A description of the juvenile phase colour patterns of 24 parrotfish species (Family Scaridae) from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Records of the Australian Museum 41: 1-41. DOI:10.3853/j.0067-1975.41.1989.134 Open access

    Bellwood, D.R. & Choat, J.H. 1990. A functional analysis of grazing in parrotfishes (family Scaridae): the ecological implications. Environmental Biology of Fish 28: 189–214 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00751035

    Bellwood, D.R. & Choat, J.H. 2011. Dangerous demographics: the lack of juvenile humphead parrotfishes Bolbometopon muricatum on the Great Barrier Reef. Coral Reefs 30: 549–554. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00338-011-0738-2

    Bellwood, D.R., Hoey, A.S. & Choat, J.H. 2003. Limited functional redundancy to high diversity systems: resilience and ecosystem function on coral reefs. Ecology Letters 6: 281-285. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1461-0248.2003.00432.x

    Chan, T., Sadovy, Y. & Donaldson, T.J. 2012. Bolbometopon muricatum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T63571A17894276. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T63571A17894276.en. Downloaded on 06 December 2018.

    Choat, J.H. & Randall, J.E. 1986. A review of the parrotfishes (Family Scaridae) of the Great Barrier Reef of Australia with description of a new species. Records of the Australian Museum 38: 175-228. DOI:10.3853/j.0067-1975.38.1986.181 Open access

    Comeros-Raynal, M.T., Choat, J.H., Polidoro, B., Clements, K.D., Abesamis, R., Craig, M.T., Lazuardi, M.E., McIlwain, J., Muljadi, A., Myers, R.F., et al. 2012. The likelihood of extinction of iconic and dominant components of coral reefs: the parrotfishes and surgeonfishes. PLoS ONE http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039825 Open access

    Donaldson, T.J. & Dulvy, N.K. 2004. Threatened fishes of the world: Bolbometopon muricatum (Valenciennes 1840) (Scaridae). Environmental Biology of Fishes 70: 373. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:EBFI.0000

    Dulvy, N.K. & Polunin, N.V.C. 2004. Using informal knowledge to infer human-induced rarity of a conspicuous reef fish. Animal Conservation 7: 365-374. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1367943004001519

    Gladstone, W. 1986. Spawning behavior of the bumphead parrotfish, Bolbometopon muricatum at Yonge Reef, Great Barrier Reef. Japanese Journal of Ichthyology 33(3): 326-328. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02904171

    Grant, E.M. 1991. Fishes of Australia. Brisbane : EM Grant Pty Ltd 480 pp.

    Hamilton, R.J., Adams, S. & Choat, J.H. 2008. Sexual development and reproductive demography of the green humphead parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum) in the Solomon Islands. Coral Reefs 27: 153–163. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00338-007-0304-0

    Hamilton, R.J. & Choat, J.H. 2012. Bumphead Parrotfish - Bolbometopon muricatum pp. 490–496, in Sadovy de Mitcheson, Y. & Colin, P.L. (eds) Reef Fish Spawning Aggregations: Biology, Research and Management. New York: Springer. 

    Hoey, A.S. & Bellwood, D.R. 2008. Cross-shelf variation in the role of parrotfishes on the Great Barrier Reef. Coral Reefs 27: 37. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00338-007-0287-x

    Kuiter, R.H. 1992. Tropical Reef-Fishes of the Western Pacific, Indonesia and Adjacent Waters. Jakarta : PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama 314 pp. pls.

    Kuiter, R.H. 1996. Guide to Sea Fishes of Australia. A comprehensive reference for divers and fishermen. Sydney, NSW, Australia : New Holland Publishers xvii, 434 pp.

    Muñoz, R.C., Zgliczynski, B.J., Laughlin, J.L. & Teer, B.Z. 2012. Extraordinary aggressive behavior from the giant coral reef fish, Bolbometopon muricatum, in a remote marine reserve. PLoS ONE http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038120

    Randall, J.E., Allen, G.R. & Steene, R. 1990. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. Bathurst : Crawford House Press 507 pp. figs. 

    Roff, G., Doropoulos, C., Mereb, G. & Mumby, P.J. 2017. Mass spawning aggregation of the giant bumphead parrotfish Bolbometopon muricatum. Journal of Fish Biology 91: 354-361. doi:10.1111/jfb.13340

    Streelman, J.T., Alfaro, M., Westneat, M.W., Bellwood, D.R. & Karl, S.A. 2002. Evolutionary history of the parrotfishes: biogeography, ecomorphology, and comparative diversity. Evolution 56: 961–971. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0014-3820.2002.tb01408.x

    Valenciennes, A. in Cuvier, G.L. & Valenciennes, A. 1840. Histoire Naturelle des Poissons. Paris : Levrault Vol. 14 464 pp. pls 389-420.

    Quick Facts


    CAAB Code:37386004

    Conservation:IUCN Vulnerable

    Depth:1-40 m

    Habitat:Reef associated

    Max Size:1.5 m; 75 kg

    Species Image Gallery

    Species Maps

    CAAB distribution map