Camouflage Grouper, Epinephelus polyphekadion (Bleeker 1849)


Other Names: Blue-tailed Cod, Camouflage Cod, Camouflage Rockcod, Small-toothed Cod, Small-toothed Rockcod, Smooth Flowery Rock-cod, Snout-spot Grouper, Snout-spot Rock-cod

A Camouflage Grouper, Epinephelus polyphekadion, at Osprey Reef in the Coral Sea. Source: Dave Harasti / http://www.daveharasti.com/. License: All rights reserved

Summary:
A pale brown grouper covered in small dark brown spots, a whitish upper body with large dark blotches forming oblique bands, and a dark saddle-like marking on the upper caudal-fin base.
The Camouflage Grouper is often confused with the Flowery Cod, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus.

Cite this page as:
Dianne J. Bray, Epinephelus polyphekadion in Fishes of Australia, accessed 22 Mar 2019, http://fishesofaustralia.net.au/home/species/4511

Camouflage Grouper, Epinephelus polyphekadion (Bleeker 1849)

More Info


Distribution

Found in Australia from the Shark Bay region and Scott Reef, Western Australia, to One Tree Island, Queensland, reefs and islands in the Coral Sea, and Middleton Reef and Elizabeth Reef and Lord Howe Island in the Tasman Sea.
Found in the Indo-Pacific from the Red Sea and east Africa to French Polynesia. Inhabits coral-rich areas of lagoon and outer reefs, and is most abundant around islands and atolls.

Fisheries

Caught with hook-and-line, spears and traps in Australia, and sold in the Live Reef Fish trade.

Conservation

IUCN Red List: Near Threatened. The species has been assessed using IUCN criteria as 'Lower Risk' in Australia.

Similar Species

Differs from Epinephelus fuscoguttatus in having more distinct oblique bands, a larger spot on the tail base, and fewer pectoral fin rays (16 to 17 vs 18 to 20).

Author

Dianne J. Bray

Camouflage Grouper, Epinephelus polyphekadion (Bleeker 1849)

References


Allen, G.R. 1997. Marine Fishes of Tropical Australia and South-east Asia. Perth : Western Australian Museum 292 pp. 106 pls.

Allen, G.R. & Erdmann, M.V. 2012. Reef fishes of the East Indies. Perth : Tropical Reef Research 3 vols, 1260 pp.

Allen, G.R. & Smith-Vaniz, W.F. 1994. Fishes of Cocos (Keeling) Islands. Atoll Research Bulletin 412: 1-21.

Allen, G.R. & Swainston, R. 1988. The Marine Fishes of North-Western Australia. A field guide for anglers and divers. Perth, WA : Western Australian Museum vi 201 pp., 70 pls.

Bleeker, P. 1849. Bijdrage tot de kennis der Percoïden van den Malayo-Molukschen Archipel, met beschrijving van 22 nieuwe soorten. Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen 22: 1-64.

Ceccarelli, D., Choat, J.H., Ayling, A.M., Richards, Z., van Herwerden, L., Ayling, A., Ewels, G., Hobbs, J. –P. & Cuff, B. 2008. Coringa-Herald National Nature Reserve Marine Survey – 2007. Report to the Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts by C&R Consulting and James Cook University. 80 pp.

Choat, J.H., van Herwerden, L., Robbins, W.D., Hobbs, J.P. & Ayling, A.M. 2006. A report on the ecological surveys undertaken at Middleton and Elizabeth Reefs, February 2006. Report by James Cook University to the Department of the Environment and Heritage. 65 pp.

Craig, M.T., Sadovy de Mitcheson, Y.J. & Heemstra, P.C. 2011. Groupers of the World: a Field and Market Guide. Grahamstown, South Africa : NISC Ltd 356 pp., Appendix 47 pp.

Francis, M. 1993. Checklist of the coastal fishes of Lord Howe, Norfolk, and Kermadec Islands, southwest Pacific Ocean. Pacific Science 47(2): 136-170 figs 1-2

Gill, A.C. & Reader, S.E. 1992. Fishes. pp. 90-93, 193-228 in Hutchings, P. (ed.). Reef Biology. A Survey of Elizabeth and Middleton Reefs, South Pacific. Canberra : Australian National Parks Vol. 3, Kowari 230 pp.

Grant, E.M. 2002. Guide to Fishes. Redcliffe : EM Grant Pty Ltd 880 pp.

Heemstra, P.C. & Randall, J.E. 1993. Groupers of the World (Family Serranidae, Subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. FAO Fisheries Synopsis No. 125 Vol. 16. Rome: FAO. pp. 1-382.

Heemstra, P.C. & Randall, J.E. 1999. Family Serranidae. pp. 2442-2548 in Carpenter, K.E. & Niem, T.H. (eds). The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fisheries Purposes. Rome : FAO Vol. 4 2069-2790 pp.

Hutchins, J.B. 2001. Biodiversity of shallow reef fish assemblages in Western Australia using a rapid censusing technique. Records of the Western Australian Museum 20: 247-270
Jennings, S., Reynolds, J.D. & Polunin, N.V.C. 1999. Predicting the vulnerability of tropical reef fishes to exploitation with phylogenies and life histories. Conservation Biology 13(6): 1466-1475.

Johnson, J.W. & Gill, A.C. 2005. Reef and shore fishes of Sweers Island, Gulf of Carpentaria. Gulf of Carpentaria Scientific Study Report. Geography Monograph Series. Brisbane: Royal Geographic Society of Queensland. pp. 239-260.

Kuiter, R.H. 1992. Tropical Reef-Fishes of the Western Pacific, Indonesia and Adjacent Waters. Jakarta : PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama 314 pp. pls.

Kuiter, R.H. 1996. Guide to Sea Fishes of Australia. A comprehensive reference for divers and fishermen. Sydney, NSW, Australia : New Holland Publishers xvii, 434 pp.

Lau, P.F. & Parry-Jones, R. 1999.  The Hong Kong Trade in Live Reef Fish for Food. TRAFFIC East Asia and World Wide Fund for Nature Hong Kong, Hong Kong.

Lee, C. & Sadovy, Y. 1998. A taste for live fish: Hong Kong’s Live Reef Fish Market. Naga (The ICLARM Quarterly) April-June, 1998: 38-42.

Randall, J.E. 2005. Reef and shore fishes of the South Pacific. New Caledonia to Tahiti and the Pitcairn Islands. Honolulu : University of Hawaii Press 707 pp.

Randall, J.E., Allen, G.R. & Steene, R. 1990. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. Bathurst : Crawford House Press 507 pp. figs.

Randall, J.E., Allen, G.R. & Steene, R. 1997. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. Bathurst : Crawford House Press 557 pp. figs.

Randall, J.E. & Heemstra, P.C. 1991. Revision of Indo-Pacific groupers (Perciformes: Serranidae: Epinephelinae), with descriptions of five new species. Indo-Pacific Fishes 20: 1-332.

Russell, B.C. 1983. Annotated checklist of the coral reef fishes in the Capricorn-Bunker group, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority. Special Publication Series 1: 1-184 figs 1-2

Rhodes, K.L. & Sadovy, Y. 2002. Reproduction in the camouflage grouper (Pisces: Serranidae) in Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia. Bulletin of Marine Science 70(3): 851- 869.

Rhodes, K.L. & Sadovy, Y. 2002. Temporal and spatial trends in spawning aggregations of camouflage grouper, Epinephelus polyphekadion, in Pohnpei, Micronesia. Env. Bio. Fish. 63: 27-39.

Rhodes, K. L., Lewis, R. I., Chapman, R. W. & Sadovy, Y. 2003. Genetic structure of camouflage grouper, Epinephelus polyphekadion (Pisces: Serranidae), in the western central Pacific. Marine Biology 142: 771-776.

Russell, B., Situ, A. & Cornish, A. (Grouper & Wrasse Specialist Group) 2006. Epinephelus polyphekadion. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. . Downloaded on 18 September 2014.

Sainsbury, K.J., Kailola, P.J. & Leyland, G.G. 1985. Continental Shelf Fishes of Northern and North-Western Australia. Canberra : Fisheries Information Service 375 pp. figs & pls.

Quick Facts


CAAB Code:37311047

Conservation:IUCN Near Threatened (Lower Risk Australia)

Depth:1-46 m

Fishing:Commercial, recreational fish

Max Size:90 cm SL

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CAAB distribution map