Striped Marlin, Kajikia audax (Philippi 1887)


Other Names: Beak, Beakie, Beaky, High-finned Spearfish, New Zealand Marlin, Stripey

Striped Marlin, Kajikia audax. Source: Howard Hall / Discover Life. License: All rights reserved

Summary:

A dark blue marlin with a silvery-white underside, and about 20 cobalt blue bars on the sides that do not extend onto the belly.

Fabulous footage of Striped Marlin, Mahi Mahi (Coryphaena hippurus), Sea Lions and a whale feeding on a school of sardines off Baja California, Mexico.


Cite this page as:
Bray, D.J. & Schultz, S. 2017, Kajikia audax in Fishes of Australia, accessed 22 Aug 2019, http://fishesofaustralia.net.au/home/species/715

Striped Marlin, Kajikia audax (Philippi 1887)

More Info


Distribution

The most widely distributed of all billfishes worldwide and in Australian waters. It can usually be found swimming above the thermocline, but unlike species it ventures more readily into higher latitudes, tolerating temperate waters. The species is strongly oceanic, rarely entering coastal waters, and is most often seen near islands, seamounts and boundary currents where it feeds and breeds.

Features

Dorsal fin 37-42, 5-6; Anal fin 13-18, 5-6; Pectoral fin 18-22.

Body fairly elongate and somewhat compressed. Pectoral fins long and narrow with pointed tips. Tallest part of first dorsal fin higher than, or at least equal to, body depth. Pectoral fin depressible against side of body. Scales elongated and ossified, with 1-2 points in adults. Jaws and palatines possess fine, file-like teeth.

Size

To 350 cm and 100 kg.

Colour

Dark blue dorsally, silver-white ventrally. About 20 vertical bars on sides, not extending onto the belly. Stripes consist of cobalt blue dots or narrow bands. First dorsal fin dark blue, other fins usually brown.

Feeding

Feeds on a wide variety of fishes, crustaceans, and squids.

Biology

Eggs approximately 1 mm in diameter, but exact size not known. Larvae occur in sub-equatorial waters, in temperatures above 24 degrees. Sexual maturity is reaches at 140-180 cm length, which equates to 2-4 years of age.

Fisheries

Mainly targeted via surface longlines in the commercial fishery. The species is also a popular recreational target. Recent stock assessments indicate a declining Pacific stock(s), with commercial catch rates falling and the average size of fish captured decreasing.

Conservation


Remarks

Research indicates that Striped Marlin comprise four stocks: one in Australia and New Zealand, one centred in Hawaii, and two in the Eastern Tropical Pacific (McDowell & Graves 2008).

Similar Species


Species Citation

Histiophorus audax Philippi 1887, Anales de la Universidad de Chile (1)71: 35, pl. 8(2, 3). Type locality: Iquique, Chile.

Author

Bray, D.J. & Schultz, S. 2017

Striped Marlin, Kajikia audax (Philippi 1887)

References


Bromhead, D., Pepperell, J., Wise, B. & Finlay, J. 2004. Striped marlin: Biology and ecology. Bureau of Rural Sciences, Canberra, 260 pp.

Collette, B.B. 2010. Reproduction and Development in Epipelagic Fishes. In: Cole, K.S. (ed.), Reproduction and Sexuality in Marine Fishes: Patterns and Processes, University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.

Collette, B., Acero, A., Boustany, A., Canales Ramirez, C., Cardenas, G., Carpenter, K.E., Di Natale, A., Die, D., Fox, W., Graves, J., Hinton, M., Juan Jorda, M., Minte Vera, C., Miyabe, N., Montano Cruz, R., Nelson, R., Restrepo, V., Schaefer, K., Schratwieser, J., Serra, R., Sun, C., Uozumi, Y. & Yanez, E. 2011. Kajikia audax. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T170309A6738801. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2011-2.RLTS.T170309A6738801.en. Downloaded on 13 February 2017.

Collette, B.B., McDowell, J.R. & Graves, J.E. 2006. Phylogeny of Recent billfishes (Xiphioidei). Bulletin of Marine Science 79(3): 455-468.

Domeier, M.L., Dewar, H., Nasby-Lucas, N. 2003. Mortality rate of striped marlin (Tetrapturus audax) caught with recreational tackle. Marine and Freshwater Research 54: 435-445.

Graves, J.E. & J.R. McDowell. 2003. Stock structure of the world's istiophorid billfishes: a genetic perspective. Marine and Freshwater Research, 54: 287-298.

IGFA. 2011. International Game Fish Association World Record Game Fishes. Dania Beach, Florida.

Kailola, P.J., Williams, M.J., Stewart, P.C., Reichelt, R.E., McNee, A. and Grieve, C. 1993. Australian fisheries resources. Bureau of Resource Sciences, Canberra, Australia.

Kitchell JF, Martell SJD, Walters CJ, Jensen OP, Kaplan IC, Watters J, Essington TE, Boggs CH. 2006. Billfishes in an ecosystem context. Bulletin of Marine Science 79(3): 669-682.

Kopf, R.K. 2005. Population characteristics of striped marlin, Tetrapturus audax in the New Zealand fishery. Massey University.

Langley, A., B. Molony, D. Bromhead, K. Yokawa & B. Wise. 2006. Stock assessment of striped marlin (Tetrapturus audax) in the southwest Pacific Ocean. AFMA Report. R03/1402.

McDowell, J.R. and Graves, J.E. 2008. Population structure of striped marlin (Kajikia audax) in the Pacific Ocean based on analysis of microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 65: 1307-1320.

Nakamura, I. 1985. Billfishes of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of marlins, sailfishes, spearfishes and swordfishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125, vol. 5.

Nakamura, I. 2001. Xiphiidae, Istiophoridae. pp. 3757-3764 in Carpenter, K.E. & Niem, T.H. (eds). The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fisheries Purposes. Rome : FAO Vol. 6 pp. 3381-4218.

Nakamura, I., Iwai, T. & Matsubara, K. 1968. A review of the sailfish, spearfish, marlin and swordfish of the world. Misaki Marine Biological Institute. Kyoto University. Special Report 4: 1-95 figs 1-26 [in Japanese]

Pepperell, J.D., Davis, T.L.O. 1999. Post-release behaviour of black marlin, Makaira nigricans caught and released using sport fishing gear off the Great barrier Reef (Australia). Marine Biology 135: 369-380.

Pillai, P.P. and S. Ueyanagi. 1977. Distribution and biology of the striped marlin, Tetrapterus [sic] audax (Philippi) taken by the longline fishery in the Indian Ocean. Bull. Far Seas Fish. Res. Lab 16: 9-32.

Pine, W.E. III, Martell, S.J.D., Jensen, O.P., Walters, C.J.and Kitchell, J.F. 2008. Catch-and-release and size limit regulations for blue, white, and striped marlin: the role of postrelease survival in effective policy design. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 65: 975-988.

Shomura, R.S. and Williams, F. 1975. Proceedings of the International Billfish Symposium Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, 9-12 August 1972. Part 3. NOAA Technical Report NMFS Spec. Sci. Rep. Fish. 675(3).

Sippel TJ, Davie PS, Holdsworth JC, Block BA. 2007. Striped marlin (Tetrapturus audax) movements and habitat utilization during a summer and autumn in the southwest Pacific Ocean. Fisheries Oceanography 16(5): 459-472.

Ueyanagi S, Wares PG. 1975. Synopsis of biological data on striped marlin, Tetrapturus audax (Philippi), 1887. NOAA Technical Report NMFS Spec. Sci. Rep. Fish. 675(3):132-139.

Whitelaw, W. 2001. Country guide to gamefishing in the western and central Pacific. Secretariat of the Pacific Community, Noumea, New Caledonia.

Worm, B. and Tittensor, D.P. 2011. Range contraction in large pelagic predators. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. doi/10.1073.pnas.110235108.

Quick Facts


CAAB Code:37444002

Conservation:IUCN Near Threatened

Depth:0-289 m

Fishing:Commercial & game fish

Habitat:Pelagic, oceanodromous

Max Size:420 cm TL

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Species Maps

CAAB distribution map