Shark Mackerel, Grammatorcynus bicarinatus (Quoy & Gaimard 1825)


Other Names: Couta, Double-lined Mackerel, Large Scale Tuna, Largescale Tunny, Large-scaled Tuna, Large-scaled Tunny, Salmon Mackerel, Scaley Mackerel, Scaly Kingfish, Scaly Mackerel

A Shark Mackerel, Grammatorcynus bicarinatus, at the wreck of the SS Yongala off Townsville, April 2015. Source: Robin Laws-Wall / iNaturalist.org. License: CC By Attribution-NonCommercial

Summary:

An easily recognised slender mackeral with a metallic bluish-green tinge above, silvery below often with small black spots on the belly, and a double lateral line - one from the gill cover to the caudal fin, the second from the first line running steeply downwards behind the pectoral fin and along the lower side to rejoin the first lateral line near the caudal fin. 

With its oily flesh, this species is not highly regarded at a table fish.


A Shark Mackerel attracted to a pelagic baited remote underwater stereo-video system at Tantabiddi (Ningallo), Western Australia - depth 35 m.


Cite this page as:
Bray, D.J. & Schultz, S. 2017, Grammatorcynus bicarinatus in Fishes of Australia, accessed 21 May 2019, http://fishesofaustralia.net.au/home/species/721

Shark Mackerel, Grammatorcynus bicarinatus (Quoy & Gaimard 1825)

More Info


Distribution

Houtman Abrolhos Islands to the Dampier Archipelago, Western Australia, Ashmore Reef, Timor Sea, and Cape York, Queensland, to at least Byron Bay, New South Wales. Elsewhere the species occurs in the south-west Pacific (New Guinea, New Caledonia). 

Forms schools around reefs and near bays, moving into shallow water on the high tide to feed over reef flats.

Features

Dorsal fin XI-XIII, 0, 0, 10-12 + 6 finlets; Anal fin 11-13 + 7finlets; Pectoral fin 22-26; Gill rakers 14-15.

Dorsal fins separated by a narrow space. Pectoral fins stout. Body elongate and slightly compressed. Slender conical teeth forming a single series in each jaw, 20-30 in each jaw. Body covered in moderately small scales, no prominent corselet present. Two lateral lines. Caudal peduncle with well-developed keel, flanked on each side by a smaller keel. Swim bladder present.

Size

To at least 110 cm and 13.5 kg in weight.

Colour

Metallic blue-green dorsally and on upper sides, fading to silvery-white with golden tinge on belly. Belly with small dark spots (may be absent).

Feeding

Carnivore - feeds on schools of clupeoid fishes and crustaceans.

Biology


Fisheries

Commercially fished and used as bait in Queensland. The species is also targeted by light-gear recreational fishers. The flesh is not highly valued due to the high oil content.

Conservation


Remarks

Commonly called the Shark Mackerel due to the ammonia shark-like odour of the flesh.

Similar Species

G. bicarinatus differs from the closely related G. bilineatus in having fewer gill rakers (12-14 vs. 18-24), a smaller eye (3.1-4.6% vs 4.0 to 6.0% FL), small black spots on the lower sides of the body, and reaching a larger size (110cm vs 60cm FL). These species also differ from one another in a number of osteological characters.

Species Citation

Thynnus bicarinatus Quoy & Gaimard 1825, in Freycinet, Voyage autour du Monde: 357, pl. 61 1. Type locality: Shark Bay, Western Australia (as Baie des Chiens-Marins).

Author

Bray, D.J. & Schultz, S. 2017

Resources

Australian Faunal Directory

Shark Mackerel, Grammatorcynus bicarinatus (Quoy & Gaimard 1825)

References


Allan, R. 2002. Australian Fish and How to Catch Them. Sydney : New Holland Publishers (Australia) 394 pp. 

Allen, G.R. 1997. Marine Fishes of Tropical Australia and South-east Asia. Perth : Western Australian Museum 292 pp. 106 pls. 

Allen, G.R. & Swainston, R. 1988. The Marine Fishes of North-Western Australia. A field guide for anglers and divers. Perth, WA : Western Australian Museum vi 201 pp., 70 pls. 

Collette, B.B. 1983. Recognition of two species of double-lined mackerels (Grammatorcynus, Scombridae). Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 96: 715-718.

Collette, B.B. 2001. Scombridae. pp. 3721-3756 in Carpenter, K.E. & Niem, T.H. (eds). The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fisheries Purposes. Rome : FAO Vol. 6 pp. 3381-4218. 

Collette, B., Fox, W. & Nelson, R. 2011. Grammatorcynus bicarinatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. . Downloaded on 13 February 2015.

Collette, B.B. & Gillis, G.B. 1992. Morphology, systematics, and biology of the double-lined mackerels (Grammatorcynus, Scombridae). Fishery Bulletin (U.S.) 90: 13-53, 27 figs 

Collette, B.B. & Nauen, C.E. 1983. FAO species catalogue. Scombrids of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of tunas, mackerels, bonitos and related species known to date. Fisheries Synopsis No. 125, Vol. 2. Rome : FAO. 137 pp. 81 figs Fraser-

Brunner, A. 1950. The fishes of the family Scombridae. Annals and Magazine of Natural History 12 3(7): 131-163 figs 1-35 

Grant, E.M. 1991. Fishes of Australia. Brisbane : EM Grant Pty Ltd 480 pp. 

Hutchins, B. 2004. Fishes of the Dampier Archipelago, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum, Supplement 66: 343–398 

Hutchins, J.B. 1997. Checklist of fishes of the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia. pp. 239-253 in Wells, F. (ed.) The Marine Fauna and Flora of the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia. Perth : Western Australian Museum. 

Hutchins, J.B. & Swainston, R. 1986. Sea Fishes of Southern Australia. Complete field guide for anglers and divers. Perth : Swainston Publishing 180 pp. 

Hutchins, J.B. & Thompson, M. 1983. The Marine and Estuarine Fishes of South-western Australia. Perth : Western Australian Museum 103 pp. 345 figs. 

Johnson, J.W. 2010. Fishes of the Moreton Bay Marine Park and adjacent continental shelf waters, Queensland, Australia. pp. 299-353 in Davie, P.J.F. & Phillips, J.A. Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Marine Biological Workshop, The Marine Fauna and Flora of Moreton Bay. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 54(3) 

Marshall, T.C. 1964. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coastal Waters of Queensland. Sydney : Angus & Robertson 566 pp. 136 pls. 

McCulloch, A.R. 1915. Notes on and descriptions of Australian fishes. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 40(2): 259-277 pls 35-37 

Pepperell, J. 2010. Fishes of the Open Ocean a Natural History & Illustrated Guide. Sydney : University of New South Wales Press Ltd 266 pp. 

Quoy, J.R.C. & Gaimard, J.P. 1825. Chapter 9. Poissons. 329-401 pls 43-65 in Freycinet, L.C.D. de (ed.) Voyage Autour du Monde, entrepris par orde du Roi, sous le Ministère et conformément aux instructions de S. Exc. M. le Vicomte de Boucharge, secrétaire d'État au Département de la Marine exécuté sur les corvettes de S.M. l'Uranie et la Physicienne, pendent les années 1817, 1818, 1819 et 1820; publié sous les auspices de S.E.M. le Conte Corbière, secrétaire d'État de l'Intérieur, pour la partie historique et les sciences naturelles, et de S.E.M. le Marquis de Clermont-Tonnerre, Secrétaire d'État de la Marine et des Colonies, pour la partie nautique; par M. Louis Freycinet, etc. Paris : Pillet Aîné Vol. 1 + atlas iv 712 pp. 

Randall, J.E., Allen, G.R. & Steene, R. 1990. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. Bathurst : Crawford House Press 507 pp. figs. 

Randall, J.E., Allen, G.R. & Steene, R. 1997. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. Bathurst : Crawford House Press 557 pp. figs. 

Russell, B.C., Larson, H.K., Hutchins, J.B. & Allen, G.R. 2005. Reef fishes of the Sahul Shelf. The Beagle, Records of the Museums and Art Galleries of the Northern Territory Supplement 1 2005: 83-105

Silas, E.G. 1963. Synopsis of biological data on double-lined mackerel Grammatorcynus bicarinatus (Quoy and Gaimard) (Indo-Pacific). FAO Fisheries Report 6(2): 811-833.

Yearsley, G.K., Last, P.R. & Ward, R.D. (eds) 1999. Australian Seafood Handbook. Hobart : CSIRO Marine Research 460 pp.

Quick Facts


CAAB Code:37441025

Conservation:IUCN Least Concern

Depth:0-200 m

Fishing:Commercial, recreational fish

Habitat:Epipelagic

Max Size:130 cm FL; 12.3 kg

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Species Maps

CAAB distribution map