ClassACTINOPTERYGII Ray-finned fishes
OrderGADIFORMES Cods, grenadiers
A diverse group of mostly bentho- and bathypelagic fishes found worldwide. Gadiform fishes live in cool to cold water habitats ranging from the deep-sea to inshore coastal waters; two species live in freshwater. The group comprises 10 families and more than 600 species, including many commercially important cods, grenadiers and hakes. More than half the species belong to a single family, the Macrouridae, or grenadiers, the dominant benthopelagic fishes in deep slope waters of the world. Seven gadiform families occur in Australian waters.
Gadifom fishes have long-based dorsal and anal fins, pelvic fins (when present) usually inserted below or in front of the pectoral fins, mostly cycloid (smooth) scales and lack fin spines.
Cohen, D.M. 1984. Gadiformes: overview, pp. 259-265 In Moser H.G., W.J. Richards, D.M. Cohen, M.P. Fahay, A.W. Kendall, Jr. & S.L. Richardson (Eds). Ontogeny and Systematics of Fishes. Am. Soc. Ichthyol. Herpetol. Spec. Publ. No. 1.
Cohen, D.M. 1998. pp. 130–132, in Paxton, J.R. & Eschmeyer, W.N. (eds.) Encyclopedia of Fishes. San Diego: Academic Press.
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Collin, S.P. & Collin, H.B. (1998) The deep-sea teleost cornea: A comparative study of Gadiform fishes. Histology and Histopathology 13: 325-336.
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Fahay, M.P. & D.F. Markle. 1984. Gadiformes: Development and Relationships, pp. 265-283, In Moser H.G., W.J. Richards, D.M. Cohen, M.P. Fahay, A.W. Kendall, Jr. & S.L. Richardson (eds). Ontogeny and Systematics of Fishes. Am. Soc. Ichthyol. Herpetol. Spec. Publ. No. 1.
Iwamoto, T. 1999. Order Gadiformes. In Carpenter, K.E. & V.H. Niem. Species identification guide for fisheries purposes. The living marine resources of the western central Pacific. Batoid fishes, chimeras and bony fishes part 1 (Elopidae to Linophrynidae). FAO, Rome.
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Richards, W.J. 2006. Order Gadiformes, Ch. 41, In W.J. Richards (ed). Early Stages Of Atlantic Fishes: An Identification Guide For The Western Central North Atlantic. CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, Boca Raton, FL, 2640 pp.
Wiley, E.O. & Johnson, G.D. 2010. A teleost classification based on monophyletic groups. pp. 123-182 in Nelson, J.S., Schultze, H.-P. & Wilson, M.V.H. Origin and Phylogenetic Interrelationships of Teleosts. München, Germany : Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil 480 pp.