Humpback Brotula, Grammonus robustus Smith & Radcliffe 1913

Other Names: Humpback Cusk

Illustration of a Humpback Cusk, Grammonus robustus. Source: From Smith & Radcliffe 1913 / Biodiversity Heritage Library. License: CC by Attribution

A reddish-brown brotula with a large broad head. 

Cite this page as:
Dianne J. Bray, Grammonus robustus in Fishes of Australia, accessed 08 Dec 2022,

Humpback Brotula, Grammonus robustus Smith & Radcliffe 1913

More Info


Off Townsville, and the Marian Plateau, north of Saumarez Reef to the southern Coral Sea, Queensland. Elsewhere, the species is widespread in the tropical, Indo-west Pacific.


Dorsal fin 75-87; Anal fin 50-62. 
Head large, broad, scaled; opercular spine small, with sharp pointed tip. 

Species Citation

Grammonus robustus Smith & Radcliffe 1913, Proc. U. S. Natl Mus. 44(1948): 168, pl. 13 (4). Type locality: between Cebu and Leyte, Philippines, 189 fathoms. [10°38'00"N, 124°13'08"E].


Dianne J. Bray


Atlas of Living Australia

Humpback Brotula, Grammonus robustus Smith & Radcliffe 1913


Nielsen, J.G., Cohen, D.M., Markle, D.F. & Robins, C.R. 1999. Ophidiiform Fishes of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of pearlfishes, cusk-eels, brotulas and other ophidiiform species known to date. FAO Fisheries Synopsis No. 125 Vol. 18. 178 pp.

Nielsen, J. G. & Cohen, D. M. 2004. Grammonus thielei (Ophidiiformes: Bythitidae) - a new bythitid cavefish from off Sulawesi, Indonesia. The Beagle, Records of the Museums and Art Galleries of the Northern Territory 20: 83-86.

Nielsen. J.G. 1999. Families Carapidae, Ophidiidae, Bythitidae, Aphionidae. pp. 1978-1985 in Carpenter, K.E. & Niem, V.H. (eds). The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fisheries Purposes. Rome : FAO Vol. 3 pp. 1397-2068.

Nielsen, J.G. 2010. Grammonus robustus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. . Downloaded on 28 August 2015.

Smith, H.M. & Radcliffe, L. in Radcliffe, L. 1913. Descriptions of seven new genera and thirty-one new species of fishes of the families Brotulidae and Carapidae from the Philippine Islands and the Dutch East Indies. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 44(1948): 135-176 pls 7-17

Yamada, U., Shirai, S., Irie, T., Tokimura, M., Deng, S. Zheng, Y., Li, C., Kim, Y.U. & Kim, Y.S. 1995. Names and illustrations of fishes from the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea. Tokyo, Japan : Overseas Fishery Cooperation Foundation 288 pp. (as Oligopus robustus)

Quick Facts

CAAB Code:37228071

Biology:Live bearer

Conservation:IUCN Least Concern

Depth:45–345 m

Habitat:Soft bottoms

Max Size:21 cm SL

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CAAB distribution map