Crested Hornshark, Heterodontus galeatus (Günther 1870)


Other Names: Crested Bull Shark, Crested Bullhead Shark, Crested Horn Shark, Crested Port Jackson Shark, Crested Shark

A Crested Horn Shark, Heterodontus galeatus, at The Gap, Sydney, New South Wales, 20 September 2015. Source: John Turnbull / Flickr. License: CC by Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike

Summary:

A medium-sized brownish shark with a blunt rounded head, a large prominent crest above each eye that ends abruptly behind the eye, two triangular dorsal fins, each preceded by a spine, and indistinct broad dark bars on the body.

The Crested Horn Shark is less common than the Port Jackson Shark.

Video of a Crested Horn Shark at Bawley Point, New South Wales.

Video of a Crested Horn Shark trying to eat an eggcase at Sydney, New South Wales.


Cite this page as:
Bray, D.J. 2020, Heterodontus galeatus in Fishes of Australia, accessed 22 Sep 2020, http://136.154.202.208/home/species/1981

Crested Hornshark, Heterodontus galeatus (Günther 1870)

More Info


Distribution

Endemic to warm temperate and temperate waters of eastern Australia, from about Cape Moreton in southern Queensland to Batemans Bay in southern New South Wales.

Crested Hornsharks are nocturnal and inhabit rocky reefs with large macroalgae, and nearby sandy and seagrass areas in depths to 93 m. The species is more common in the warmer parts of its range, and may occur in deeper waters than closer inshore.

Size

To 1.5 m TL

Colour


Feeding

Crested Hornsharks are nocturnal and have a similar diet to the Port Jackson Shark - feeding on a range of bottom-living invertebrates, including echinoderms (especially the sea urchins Centrostephanus rodgersii and Heliocardis erythrogramma) crabs, molluscs and small fishes, using their large rear molars to crush their prey.

The jaw teeth range from small and pointed at the front, to wide, molar-like teeth at the rear of the jaw used for crushing hard-shelled prey items.

Biology

Very little is known of the biology and life history of Crested Hornsharks in the wild. Females mature at about 70 cm TL and males from about 54 cm TL. During late winter, females lay spiral-shaped egg cases (11 cm long) attached to sponges and algae by the very long tendrils (up to 2 metres long). The young reportedly hatch at 17-22 cm TL after 8-9 months. The egg cases are thought to be laid in deeper water than those of the Port Jackson Shark.

Fisheries

Crested Hornsharks are not targeted in commercial fisheries and, unlike Port Jackson Sharks, are not taken as often as commercial bycatch or by recreational fishers.

Conservation

IUCN Red List: Least Concern

EPBC Act 1999: Not listed

Remarks


Similar Species

Differs from the Port Jackson Shark, Heterodontus portusjacksoniin having more prominent ridges above the eyes and in lacking harness-like markings on the body.

Etymology

Heterodontus is from the Greek heteros meaning 'other' and odous meaning 'teeth'. The specific name galeatus is Latin meaning 'helmeted', in reference to the large ridges above the eyes.

Species Citation

Squalus portusjacksoni Meyer, 1793,  Systematisch-summarische Uebersicht der neuesten zoologischen Entdeckungen in Neuholland und Afrika: 71. Type Locality: Botany Bay, New South Wales

Author

Bray, D.J. 2020

Resources

Atlas of Living Australia

Crested Hornshark, Heterodontus galeatus (Günther 1870)

References


Coleman, N. 1980. Australian Sea Fishes South of 30°S. Lane Cove, NSW : Doubleday Australia Pty Ltd 309 pp.

Compagno, L.J.V. 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Sharks of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes. FAO Fisheries Synopsis No. 125. Rome : FAO Vol. 4(1) pp. 1-249.

Compagno, L.J.V. 2001. Sharks of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Bullhead, mackerel and carpet sharks (Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes and Orectolobiformes). Rome : FAO, FAO Species Catalogue for Fisheries Purposes No. 1 Vol. 2 269 pp.

Compagno, L.J.V., Dando, M. & Fowler, S. 2005. A Field Guide to the Sharks of the World. London : Collins 368 pp.

Grant, E.M. 2002. Guide to Fishes. Redcliffe : EM Grant Pty Ltd 880 pp.

Günther, A. 1870. Catalogue of the Fishes in the British Museum. Catalogue of the Physostomi, containing the families Gymnotidae, Symbranchidae, Muraenidae, Pegasidae, and of the Lophobranchii, Plectognathi, Dipnoi, [thru] Leptocardii, in the British Museum. London : British Museum Vol. 8 549 pp. See ref at BHL

Hutchins, J.B. & Swainston, R. 1986. Sea Fishes of Southern Australia. Complete field guide for anglers and divers. Perth : Swainston Publishing 180 pp.

Jacups, A. 1943. A young crested Port Jackson shark. Proceedings of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales. 1943: 11.

Johnson, J.W. 2010. Fishes of the Moreton Bay Marine Park and adjacent continental shelf waters, Queensland, Australia. pp. 299-353 in Davie, P.J.F. & Phillips, J.A. Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Marine Biological Workshop, The Marine Fauna and Flora of Moreton Bay. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 54(3)

Kuiter, R.H. 1993. Coastal Fishes of South-eastern Australia. Bathurst : Crawford House Press 437 pp.

Kuiter, R. & Kuiter, S. 2018. Coastal sea-fishes of south-eastern Australia. Seaford, Victoria : Aquatic Photographics, 371 pp.

Kyne, P.M. 2010. Chondrichthyans and the Queensland East Coast Trawl Fishery: Bycatch reduction, biology, conservation status and sustainability. PhD thesis, University of Queensland, Brisbane, 361 pp.

Kyne, P.M. & Bennett, M.B. 2016. Heterodontus galeatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T41824A68625634. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T41824A68625634.en. Downloaded on 15 September 2020.

Last, P.R. & Stevens, J.D. 1994. Sharks and Rays of Australia. Canberra : CSIRO Australia 513 pp. 84 pls.

Last, P.R. & Stevens, J.D. 2009. Sharks and Rays of Australia. Collingwood : CSIRO Publishing Australia 2, 550 pp.

Macbeth, W.G., Vandenberg, M. & Graham, K.J. 2008. Identifying Sharks and Rays; a Guide for Commercial Fishers. Sydney : New South Wales Department of Primary Industry 71 pp.

McLaughlin, R.H. 1969. The ecology of heterodont sharks. Unpublished PhD. Thesis, University of New South Wales, Sydney.

McLaughlin, R.H. & O’Gower, A.K. 1971. Life history and underwater studies of a heterodont shark. Ecological Monographs 41(4): 271-289.

Michael, S.W. 1993. Reef sharks and rays of the world. A guide to their identification, behavior and ecology. Sea Challengers, Monterey, California.

Meyer, F.A. 1793. Systematisch-summarische Uebersicht der neuesten zoologischen Entdeckungen in Neuholland und Afrika. Leipzig : Dykirchen 178 pp.

Stead, D.G. 1963. Sharks and Rays of Australian Seas. Sydney : Angus & Robertson 211 pp. 63 figs.

Waite, E.R. 1896. On the egg-cases of some Port Jackson sharks. Journal of the Linnean Society of London 25: 325-329.

Whitley, G.P. 1931. New names for Australian fishes. The Australian Zoologist 6(4): 310-334 1 fig. pls 25-27

Whitley, G.P. 1940. The Fishes of Australia. Part 1. The sharks, rays, devil-fish, and other primitive fishes of Australia and New Zealand. Sydney : Roy. Zool. Soc. N.S.W. 280 pp. 303 figs.(as Molochophrys galeatus)

Whitley, G.P. 1950. Development of a Port Jackson shark. Proceedings of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales. 1950: 28

Quick Facts


CAAB Code:37007003

Conservation:IUCN: Least Concern

Depth:1-93 metres

Habitat:Reef associated

Max Size:150 cm TL

Species Image Gallery

Species Maps

CAAB distribution map