Silver Trevally, Pseudocaranx georgianus (Cuvier 1833)

Other Names: Araara, Blue Trevally, Blurter, Bruised-face Trevally, Jack, Ranger, Silver Bream, Skipjack Trevally, Skippy, Trevally, White Trevally

A Silver Trevally, Pseudocaranx georgianus, in the Solitary Islands, New South Wales. Source: Rick Stuart-Smith / Reef Life Survey. License: CC By Attribution


Greenish-blue above, silvery below, with a rather large diffuse black spot on the upper margin of the gill cover. Juveniles and sub-adults usually have a yellow mid-lateral stripe and a faint yellow stripe along the bases of the dorsal and anal fins. The rear margin of the upper jaw is nearly vertical.

Video of a school of Silver Trevally at Bawley Point, New South Wales. 

School of Silver Trevally in Cabbage Tree Bay, New South Wales.

This species was previously confused with Pseudocaranx dentex.

Cite this page as:
Bray, D.J. 2022, Pseudocaranx georgianus in Fishes of Australia, accessed 21 Jun 2024,

Silver Trevally, Pseudocaranx georgianus (Cuvier 1833)

More Info


Found in southern Australia from north of Sydney, New South Wales, to just north of Perth, Western Australia; also Norfolk Island in the Tasman Sea. Elsewhere the species occurs in New Zealand. 
A pelagic species that occurs in large schools over reefs and surrounding sandy areas. Individuals also enter estuaries and school over artificial reefs. Adults prefer deeper waters around headlands, while juveniles occur in shallow coastal waters and are more strongly reef-associated than adults. Larger fish undertake a pronounced offshore migration.


Dorsal fin VIII + I, 25-28; Anal fin II; I, 21-24; Caudal fin 17; Pectoral fin 18-20; Pelvic fin I, 5; Lateral line 73-95 (scales) + 16-27 (scutes); Gill rakers 8-11 + 20-23.

Posterior margin of upper jaw nearly vertical. Body deep, oval, compressed, tail base very slender; pectoral fins long, slender, scythe-like, reaching almost to straight part of lateral line; enlarged bony scales present at rear end of lateral line; hind margin of upper jaw nearly vertical; scales absent below and before eye.


Greenish-blue above, silvery below, with a rather large diffuse black spot on upper margin of gill cover; juveniles and subadults usually with a yellow mid-lateral stripe and a faint yellow stripe along dorsal and anal-fin bases.


A relatively long-lived and slow growing species with a longevity greater than 20 years and a maximum recorded age of over 45 years.


The silver trevally is targeted by recreational and commercial fisheries throughout its range, and declines have been detected in New South Wales and possibly northern New Zealand. The fishery is managed for catch, size and bag limits in Australia.
In Victoria, Australia, it is frequently sold in markets and is considered to have a flesh of excellent flavour.


Until 2006, this trevally was confused with the widely distributed anti-tropical species Pseudocaranx dentex (Bloch and Schneider). 
Smith-Vaniz & Jelks (2006) recognized P. georgianus as a valid species. It co-occurs with P. wrighti throughout most of its range except northwestern Australia where P. dinjerra occurs and in Queensland and Lord Howe Island by what may be different species,where a different species, tentatively identified as Pseudocaranx sp. 'dentex', occurs. 
Bearham et al. (2019) found three discrete lineages within the P. dentex complex in Australian waters that corresponded to P. georgianus, P. wrighti and Pseudocaranx sp. 'dentex'. They also suggested that P. sp. ‘dentex’ is closely related to, and possibly the same species as, P. dentex from southern Africa and the Mediterranean Sea.

Species Citation

Caranx georgianus Cuvier 1833, Histoire Naturelle des Poissons 9: 85. Type locality: King George Sound, Western Australia.


Bray, D.J. 2022


Atlas of Living Australia

Silver Trevally, Pseudocaranx georgianus (Cuvier 1833)


Bearham, D., Robert, M., Chaplin, J.A., Moore, G.I., Fairclough, D.V. & Bertram, A. 2019. Molecular evidence of three species in the Pseudocaranx dentex complex (Carangidae) in Australian waters. Marine and Freshwater Research

Becker, A., Taylor, M.D. & Lowry, M.B. 2017. Monitoring of reef associated and pelagic fish communities on Australia’s first purpose built offshore artificial reef. ICES Journal of Marine Science 74(1): 277-285.

Chick, R., Roelofs, A., Green, C., Fairclough, D.V., Stewart, J., Georgeson, L. & Emery, T. 2016. Silver trevally Pseudocaranx georgianus, Pseudocaranx sp. ‘dentex’ & Pseudocaranx wrighti. Status of Australian Fish Stocks Reports. (Fisheries Research and Development Corporation: Canberra, ACT, Australia.) Available at, Accessed 21 December 2018.

Cuvier, G.L. in Cuvier, G.L. & Valenciennes, A. 1833. Histoire Naturelle des Poissons. Paris : Levrault Vol. 9 512 pp. pls 246-279. (described as Caranx platessa, type locality Geographe Bay, WA) See ref at BHL

Francis, M.P. 2019. Checklist of the coastal fishes of Lord Howe, Norfolk and Kermadec Islands, southwest Pacific Ocean, Version: 2019.1,

French, B., Platell, M.E., Clarke, K.R. & Potter, I.C. 2012. Ranking of length-class, seasonal and regional effects on dietary compositions of the co-occurring Pagrus auratus (Sparidae) and Pseudocaranx georgianus (Carangidae). Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 115: 309-325.

Gomon, M.F. 1994. Family Carangidae. pp. 582-590 figs 516-522 in Gomon, M.F., Glover, C.J.M. & Kuiter, R.H. (eds). The Fishes of Australia's South Coast. Adelaide : State Printer 992 pp. 810 figs. (as Pseudocaranx dentex)

Hoschke, A., Whisson, G. & Moore, G.I. 2019. Complete list of fishes from Rottnest Island. pp. 150-161 in Whisson, G. & Hoschke, A. (eds) The Rottnest Island fish book. 2nd ed. Perth: Aqua Research and Monitoring Services.

Hutchins, J.B. 1994. A survey of the nearshore reef fish fauna of Western Australia's west and south coasts — The Leeuwin Province. Records of the Western Australian Museum, Supplement46: 1-66 figs 1-6 (p.47, as Pseudocaranx dentex in part)

Hutchins, J.B. & Thompson, M. 1983. The Marine and Estuarine Fishes of South-western Australia. Perth : Western Australian Museum 103 pp. 345 figs. (p.80, as Pseudocaranx dentex in part)

James, G.D. & Stephenson, A.B. 1974. Caranx georgianus Cuvier, 1833 (Pisces, Carangidae) in temperate Australasian waters. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 4(4): 401-410 figs 1-5

Kuiter, R.H. 1993. Coastal Fishes of South-eastern Australia. Bathurst : Crawford House Press 437 pp. (as as Pseudocaranx dentex)

Macleay, W.J. 1881. Descriptive catalogue of the fishes of Australia. Part 2. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 1 5(4): 510-629 pls 13-14 (described as Caranx nobilis, type locality Port Jackson, NSW)

May, J.L. & Maxwell, J.G.H. 1986. Field Guide to Trawl Fish from Temperate Waters of Australia. Hobart : CSIRO Division of Marine Research 492 pp. (as as Pseudocaranx dentex)

Roughley, T.C. 1951. Fish and Fisheries of Australia. Sydney : Angus & Robertson 343 pp. (as Usacaranx georgianus)

Rowling, K.R. & Raines, L.P. 2000. Description of the biology and assessment of the fishery for the Silver Trevally Pseudocaranx dentex off New South Wales. NSW Fisheries Final Report Series No. 24. NSW Fisheries Research Institute, Cronulla, NSW, Australia. (as Pseudocaranx dentex)

Scott, T.D., Glover, C.J.M. & Southcott, R.V. 1974. The Marine and Freshwater Fishes of South Australia. Adelaide : Government Printer 392 pp. figs. (as Usacaranx georgianus)

Smith-Vaniz, W.F. 1999. Family Carangidae. pp. 2659-2756 in Carpenter, K.E. & Niem, T.H. (eds). The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fisheries Purposes. Rome : FAO Vol. 4 pp. 2069-2790.  (p.2370,  (as Pseudocaranx dentex in part, southern Australia)

Smith-Vaniz, W.F. 2008. Family Carangidae. pp. 575-581 in Gomon. M.F., Bray, D.J. & Kuiter, R.H (eds). Fishes of Australia's Southern Coast. Sydney : Reed New Holland 928 pp.

Smith-Vaniz, W.F. 2015. 179 Family Carangidae, pp. 1248-1262 in Roberts, C.D., Stewart, A.L. & Struthers, C.D. (eds). The Fishes of New Zealand. Wellington : Te Papa Press Vol. 4 pp. 1153-1748.

Smith-Vaniz, W.F., Carpenter, K.E., Larson, H., Matsuura, K. & Motomura, H. 2018. Pseudocaranx georgianus . The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T20434340A115606283. Downloaded on 29 January 2020.

Smith-Vaniz, W.F. & Jelks, H.L. 2006. Australian trevallies of the genus Pseudocaranx (Teleostei: Carangidae), with description of a new species from Western Australia. Memoirs of Museum Victoria 63(1): 97-106 (as Pseudocaranxsp. "dentex")

Stewart, J. 2011. Evidence of age-class truncation in some exploited marine fish populations in New South Wales, Australia. Fisheries Research 108(1): 209-213.

Whitley, G.P. 1937. The Middleton and Elizabeth Reefs, South Pacific Ocean. The Australian Zoologist 8(4): 199-231 figs 13-14 (as Usacaranx georgianus)

Quick Facts

CAAB Code:37337062

Conservation:IUCN Least Concern

Depth:0-240 m

Fishing:Commercial, recreational fish

Habitat:Reef associated

Max Size:94 cm TL

Species Image Gallery

Species Maps

CAAB distribution map