Convict Grouper, Hyporthodus septemfasciatus (Thunberg 1793)

Other Names: Convict Rockcod, Sevenband Grouper

Convict Grouper, Hyporthodus septemfasciatus. Source: Australian National Fish Collection, CSIRO. License: CC by Attribution-NonCommercial

This species was previously placed in the genus Epinephelus.

Cite this page as:
Bray, D.J. 2018, Hyporthodus septemfasciatus in Fishes of Australia, accessed 11 Aug 2022,

Convict Grouper, Hyporthodus septemfasciatus (Thunberg 1793)

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North-west of Geralton, Western Australia. Elsewhere the species occurs in the tropical north Pacific.


Feeds on small fishes and crustaceans.


This species is a protogynous hermaphrodite, and has been bred and raised in captivity (Kitajima et al. 1991).


Craig et al. (2011) treated Hyporthodus septemfasciatus as restricted to the north-west Pacific, and considered the Western Australian material to be misidentified Hyporthodus octofasciatus. Yearsley et al. (1999) recognised two species on the east coast of Australia (Epinephelus ergastularius and a second, which is now considered to be E. octofasciatus). They stated that the Western Australian material differed genetically from eastern Australian material, and tentatively recognised Epinephelus septemfasciatus (now Hyporthodues ergastularius). The figure in Hutchins & Thompson (1983) is more similar to H. septemfasciatus that H. ergastularius. 

Species Citation

Perca septemfasciatus Thunberg 1793, Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps-Academiens Nya Handlingar, Stockholm 14: 56, pl. 1. Type locality: Japan.


Bray, D.J. 2018


Australian Faunal Directory

Convict Grouper, Hyporthodus septemfasciatus (Thunberg 1793)


Boulenger, G.A. 1895. Catalogue of the Fishes in the British Museum. Catalogue of the perciform fishes. London : British Museum Vol. 1 394 pp. 15 pls. 

Craig, M.T., Sadovy de Mitcheson, Y.J. & Heemstra, P.C. 2011. Groupers of the World: a Field and Market Guide. Grahamstown, South Africa : NISC Ltd 356 pp., Appendix 47 pp. 

Craig, M.T. & Hastings, P.A. 2007. A molecular phylogeny of the groupers of the subfamily Epinephelinae (Serranidae) with a revised classification of the Epinephelini. Ichthyological Research 54(1): 1-17 

Hutchins, J.B. & Thompson, M. 1983. The Marine and Estuarine Fishes of South-western Australia. Perth : Western Australian Museum 103 pp. 345 figs. 

Kitajima, C., Takaya, M., Tsukashima, Y. & Arakawa, T. 1999. Development of eggs, larvae and juveniles of the grouper, Epinephelus septemfascxiatus, reared in the laboratory. Japanese Journal of Ichthyology 38((1):): 47-55.  

Moon, T.S., Park, S.R. & Choi, H.S. 1999. Study on the development of culture technology for Serranidae. (2) Rearing density of cultured sevenband grouper, Epinephelus septemfasciatus in marine floating net cage. Bulletin of the National Fisheries Research and Development Institute 56:: 33-141.

Katayama, M. 1960. Fauna Japonica. Serranidae (Pisces). Tokyo : Biogeographical Society of Japan 189 pp. 86 pls. 

Randall, J.E., Hoese, D.F. & Last, P.L. 1993. On the status of the Australian serranid fishes Epinephelus ergastularius Whitley and E. thompsoni Whitley. Records of the Australian Museum 45: 25-31

Thunberg, C.P. 1793. Beskrifning pa nya fiskar af abborrslägtet ifrån Japan. Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps-Academiens Nya Handlingar, Stockholm 14: 55-56 

Yearsley, G.K., Last, P.R. & Ward, R.D. (eds) 1999. Australian Seafood Handbook. Hobart : CSIRO Marine Research 460 pp.

Quick Facts

CAAB Code:37311060


Conservation:IUCN Least Concern

Depth:5-360 m

Habitat:Reef associated

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CAAB distribution map