Bludger Trevally, Turrum gymnostethus (Cuvier 1833)


Other Names: Bleeker's Jackfish, Bludger, Nakedbreast Trevally

Bludger Trevally, Turrum gymnostethus, at Mornington Island. Source: Rick Stuart-Smith / Reef Life Survey. License: CC By Attribution

Summary:
A green to bluish-green trevally becoming silvery-white below, sometimes with small brown to golden spots (usually less than 30) scattered on the mid-sides, olive green dorsal, anal, caudal and pelvic fins, and often white tips on the soft dorsal and anal fins. Juveniles to 200 mm are silver to silvery-green with a few scattered golden spots on the side, and a dark line running obliquely through the eye that fades with age.
This species was previously known as Carangoides gymnocephalus prior to the publication of Kimura et al. (2022).


Cite this page as:
Bray, D.J. 2022, Turrum gymnostethus in Fishes of Australia, accessed 10 Dec 2022, https://fishesofaustralia.net.au/home/species/4262

Bludger Trevally, Turrum gymnostethus (Cuvier 1833)

More Info


Distribution

Widespread in northern Australia, from Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia, to Moreton Bay, Queensland. Elsewhere the species occurs in the tropical, Indo-west Pacific from South Africa to New Caledonia, and north to the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Adults prefer deeper offshore reefs.

Features

Dorsal fin VIII + I, 28-33; Anal fin ll + I, 24-27; Gill rakers 7-9 + 19-22 = 28-31; Lateral line (straight part) 20-31 small scutes.
Naked area on breast extending up to, but not above, pectoral-fin base; head profile relatively steep in small juveniles (less than 150 mm LCF) becoming less steep with age, large adults elongate with very shallow head profile (angle of head with the horizontal axis of the body 33-42°). Curved portion of lateral line gently to moderately arched, with junction of curved and straight parts below 16th to 20th ray of 2nd dorsal fin.

Size

than straight part. Colour: Adults olive-green above, silvery white below with a few brown or golden spots sometimes present midlaterally; opercular spot dusky and inconspicuous; dorsal, anal and caudal fins pale olive-green to greenish 

Colour

Juveniles to 200 mm are silver to silvery-green with a few scattered golden spots on the side, and a dark line running obliquely through the eye, fading with age. Larger individuals are green to bluish-green above, silver below, with or without gold to golden brown spots (usually less than 30) scattered on the sides, olive green dorsal, anal, caudal and pelvic fins, and often white tips on the soft dorsal and anal fins. 

Feeding

Feeds on crustaceans and small fishes.

Fisheries

Taken in artisanal fisheries and by recreational fishers throughout its range.

Remarks

Kimura et al. (2022) reviewed the genus Carangoides, and placed this species in the genus Turrum.

Similar Species

This species is often misidentified as Carangoides fulvoguttatus.

Etymology

The specific name gymnostethsu is from the Greek gymnos (= bare, naked) and stethos (= breast, chest) in reference to the lack of scales on breast.

Species Citation

Caranx gymnostethus Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833, Histoire Naturelle des Poissons 9: 73. Type locality: Seychelles.

Author

Bray, D.J. 2022

Resources

Atlas of Living Australia

Bludger Trevally, Turrum gymnostethus (Cuvier 1833)

References


Allen, G.R. 1997. Marine Fishes of Tropical Australia and South-east Asia. Perth : Western Australian Museum 292 pp. 106 pls. 

Allen, G.R. & Erdmann, M.V. 2012. Reef fishes of the East Indies. Perth : Tropical Reef Research 3 vols, 1260 pp.

Blaber, S.J.M., Brewer, D.T. & Harris, A.N. 1994. Distribution, biomass and community structure of demersal fishes of the Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 45(3): 375-396, https://doi.org/10.1071/MF9940375

Bleeker, P. 1851. Over eenige nieuwe geslachten en soorten van Makreelachtige visschen van den Indischen Archipel. Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië 1: 341-372 (described as Carangoides gymnostethoides, type locality Java, Indonesia) See ref at BHL

Cuvier, G.L. in Cuvier, G.L. & Valenciennes, A. 1833. Histoire Naturelle des Poissons. Paris : Levrault Vol. 9 512 pp. pls 246-279. See ref at BHL

Gloerfelt-Tarp, T. & Kailola, P.J. 1984. Trawled Fishes of Southern Indonesia and Northwest Australia. Jakarta : Dir. Gen. Fish. (Indonesia), German Tech. Coop., Aust. Dev. Ass. Bur. 406 pp.

Grant, E.M. 1975. Guide to Fishes. Brisbane : Queensland Government, Co-ordinator General’s Department 640 pp. 

Grant, E.M. 2002. Guide to Fishes. Redcliffe : EM Grant Pty Ltd 880 pp. 

Gunn, J.S. 1990. A revision of selected genera of the family Carangidae (Pisces) from Australian waters. Records of the Australian Museum, Supplement 12: 1-77 https://doi.org/10.3853/j.0812-7387.12.1990.92

Hutchins, J.B. 1994. A survey of the nearshore reef fish fauna of Western Australia's west and south coasts — The Leeuwin Province. Records of the Western Australian Museum, Supplement 46: 1-66 figs 1-6 

Johnson, J.W. 2010. Fishes of the Moreton Bay Marine Park and adjacent continental shelf waters, Queensland, Australia. pp. 299-353 in Davie, P.J.F. & Phillips, J.A. Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Marine Biological Workshop, The Marine Fauna and Flora of Moreton Bay. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 54(3)

Kimura, S., Takeuchi, S. & Yadome, T. 2022. Generic revision of the species formerly belonging to the genus Carangoides and its related genera (Carangiformes: Carangidae). Ichthyological Research. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10228-021-00850-1

Larson, H.K., Williams, R.S. & Hammer, M.P. 2013. An annotated checklist of the fishes of the Northern Territory, Australia. Zootaxa 3696(1): 1-293.

Moore, G.I., Morrison, S.M. & Johnson, J.W. 2020. The distribution of shallow marine fishes of the Kimberley, Western Australia, based on a long-term dataset and multiple methods. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 85: 105-115 + Appendix Tab. 1. https://doi.org/10.18195/issn.0313-122x.85.2020.105-115

Randall, J.E. 2005. Reef and shore fishes of the South Pacific. New Caledonia to Tahiti and the Pitcairn Islands. Honolulu : University of Hawaii Press 707 pp.

Randall, J.E., Allen, G.R. & Steene, R. 1990. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. Bathurst : Crawford House Press 507 pp. figs. 

Randall, J.E., Allen, G.R. & Steene, R. 1997. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. Bathurst : Crawford House Press 557 pp. figs. 

Russell, B.C. 1983. Annotated checklist of the coral reef fishes in the Capricorn-Bunker group, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority. Special Publication Series 1: 1-184 figs 1-2 

Sainsbury, K.J., Kailola, P.J. & Leyland, G.G. 1984. Continental Shelf Fishes of Northern and North-Western Australia. Canberra : Fisheries Information Service 375 pp. figs & pls.

Smith-Vaniz, W.F. 1999. Family Carangidae. pp. 2659-2756 in Carpenter, K.E. & Niem, T.H. (eds). The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fisheries Purposes. Rome : FAO Vol. 4 pp. 2069-2790. 

Smith-Vaniz, W.F. & Williams, I. 2016. Carangoides gymnostethus. (errata version published in 2017) The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T20429774A115374026. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T20429774A46664074.en. Downloaded on 23 July 2017.

Whitley, G.P. 1947. New sharks and fishes from Western Australia. Part 3. The Australian Zoologist 11(2): 129-150 figs 1-3 pl. 11 (as Ferdauia claeszooni var prestonensis, type locality sixteen miles north of Cape Preston, Western Australia) See ref at BHL

Quick Facts


CAAB Code:37337022

Conservation:IUCN Least Concern

Depth:0-100 m

Fishing:Commercial/recreational fish

Habitat:Reef associated

Max Size:90 cm TL

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CAAB distribution map